Ausaid Annual Report
2012–13

australian agency for international development

Program 1.3 ODA Africa,
South and Central Asia,
Middle East and other

Summary of performance

Objective: to assist developing countries in Africa, South and Central Asia and the Middle East to reduce poverty and achieve sustainable development

Key performance indicators
Results 2010–11
Results 2011–12
Results 2012–13
Significant development results, including under tier 2 of the Comprehensive Aid Policy Framework's headline results*
Significant development results, including under tier 2 of the Comprehensive Aid Policy Framework's headline results were achieved, as highlighted on pages 107 to 139
Demonstrated organisational effectiveness, including performance against tier 3 of the Comprehensive Aid Policy Framework's headline results*
Demonstrated organisational effectiveness, including performance against tier 3 of the Comprehensive Aid Policy Framework's headline results, as highlighted on pages 107 to 139
Significant development results and significant activity outputs**
Significant development results and activity outputs were achieved, as reported by individual programs
Significant development results and activity outputs were achieved, as reported by individual programs
At least 75 per cent of activities receive a quality rating of satisfactory or higher**
90 per cent of the aggregated quality ratings for Africa, South and Central Asia, Middle East and other programs were satisfactory or higher
93 per cent of the aggregated quality ratings for Africa, South and Central Asia, Middle East and other programs were satisfactory or higher
At least 75 per cent of program strategy objectives fully or partially achieved**
100 per cent of program strategy objectives were fully or partially achieved, 42 per cent were fully achieved and 58 per cent were partially achieved
98 per cent of program strategy objectives were fully or partially achieved. Of this, 66.7 per cent of program strategy objectives were fully achieved and 30.8 per cent of program strategy objectives were partially achieved
Strategies in place for 100 per cent of country, regional and thematic programs**
58 per cent of Africa, South and Central Asia, Middle East and other programs were covered by strategies. By dollar value, 88 per cent of program allocations were covered by strategies
64 per cent of Africa, South and Central Asia, Middle East and other programs were covered by strategies. By dollar value, 93 per cent of program allocations were covered by strategies
90 per cent of activities are compliant with the quality at implementation process**
98 per cent of Africa, South and Central Asia, Middle East and other program activities were compliant with the quality at implementation process
96 per cent of Africa, South and Central Asia, Middle East and other program activities were compliant with the quality at implementation process

* This indicator was introduced in 2012–13 and was not reported against in 2010–11 and 2011–12.

** This indicator has been discontinued and was not reported against in 2012–13.

 

A map of Africa. The countries are colour coded according to how much aid they received from Australia in 2012–13.

* Amount does not include humanitarian assistance during 2012–13.

Sub-Saharan Africa

In 2012–13, Australia's country and regional program aid to Sub-Saharan Africa totalled an estimated $251.6 million. Additional assistance through Australia's global programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $385.6 million, including more than $85.2 million in humanitarian assistance.

As a comparatively small donor in the region, Australia's aid to Sub-Saharan Africa seeks to make a practical contribution in sectors where Australia has expertise. To deliver our aid effectively and efficiently, assistance is primarily provided in partnership with multilateral organisations, like-minded donors, Australian and international non-government organisations, and through other government agencies including the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).

The outlook for Sub-Saharan Africa's economic growth and development is promising. The region has experienced a decade of sustained economic growth, accounting for six out of the 10 fastest growing economies globally.64 Poverty has declined steadily over the last two decades65 and higher rates of school attendance,66 lower rates of HIV transmission67 and expanding political representation of women68 are driving improvements in development indicators.

However, the benefits of economic growth in Africa are not shared widely enough and recent gains are building off a low base. The scale of poverty and need remains immense, with Africa the region most off track to meet the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. Africa is also affected by some of the most protracted and complex humanitarian crises in the world. In eastern Africa alone, more than 13.6 million people remain food insecure despite substantial improvements in household food security in late 2012 and early 2013.69 It is estimated that more than 10 million people are food insecure in the Sahel region of West Africa, including 1.4 million children under five.70

Australia is working with African countries to reduce poverty through achieving more equitable access to the benefits of sustainable growth. To maximise impact, we are careful to align our development efforts with African priorities and to focus on areas where we can achieve the greatest impact and results, including:

  • agriculture and food security
  • maternal, neonatal and child health
  • water, sanitation and hygiene
  • mining governance
  • humanitarian assistance.

To support our work in these sectors, Australia also provides Africa-wide assistance through the Australia Awards, and the Australian Volunteers for International Development program.

Working closely with African governments and a range of development partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of people living in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2012–13.

We have been saving lives by:

  • providing approximately 189 000 additional people (including 24 408 women) with access to basic sanitation, and more than 410 000 additional people (including 132 126 women) with access to safe water, and increasing knowledge of hygiene practices for 221 000 people (including 119 000 women)
  • vaccinating more than 129 000 children (including 9132 girls) against diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus
  • facilitating safe deliveries, with around 32 000 additional births attended by a skilled birth attendant.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • providing Australia Awards to 977 Africans across 51 countries to study in Australia, including 400 masters and PhD students.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • assisting around 164 000 people (including 72 605 women) gain access to and use agricultural technologies such as improved seeds and agricultural management training
  • providing access to social transfers, such as targeted payments to poor households and food, to around 161 000 people including 84 090 women
  • increasing access to financial services for around 36 000 people including 15 686 women.

We have been promoting effective governance by:

  • training 2569 officials (including 857 women) in key areas such as mining governance, revenue collection, agriculture, public policy, sanitation and hygiene
  • supporting 92 civil society organisations to track the delivery of core services such as health, water and sanitation.

We have been preparing for and responding to humanitarian emergencies and disasters by:

  • providing 5.6 million vulnerable women, men, girls and boys with life-saving assistance in conflict and crisis situations, including 1.2 million women and girls.

Figure 12: Estimated total Australian ODA to Sub-Saharan Africa by country 2012–13

Figure 12: A pie chart showing estimated total Australian official development assistance to Sub Saharan Africa 2012–13, broken down by country. This includes other countries 28 per cent, Kenya 12 per cent, Zimbabwe 11 per cent, regional nine per cent, South Sudan nine per cent, Ethiopia seven per cent, Malawi six per cent, Somalia three per cent, Mali three per cent, Mozambique three per cent, Tanzania three per cent, Niger three per cent, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo three per cent.

Agriculture and food security

In 2012–13, food insecurity remained one of the region's most difficult challenges, with more than a quarter of people in Sub-Saharan Africa undernourished.71 We align our food security work with the African Union's Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme. Our program in Africa is focused on building agricultural productivity by improving research and adopting new technologies, and building community resilience by increasing income generation and employment.

AusAID is partnering with CSIRO and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research to share Australia's expertise in agricultural research and dry-land farming and to improve food security and agricultural productivity in Africa. Through a $28 million four-year partnership, CSIRO is helping to implement research projects which are improving agricultural farming systems, human nutrition and animal health in 15 African countries. AusAID is supporting the African Enterprise Challenge Fund to act as a catalyst for private sector innovation and commercialisation of agricultural technologies to benefit poor farmers.

In 2012–13, Australia continued to support the United Kingdom-led Hunger Safety Net Programme in Kenya. This is a long-term social protection program which aims to reduce extreme poverty, vulnerability and hunger by delivering regular, guaranteed cash transfers. By the end of 2012, the program provided 69 000 households (approximately 480 000 people) in four of the poorest counties in Kenya with unconditional cash transfers to prevent them from slipping deeper into poverty.

Maternal, neonatal and child health

In Sub-Saharan Africa, one in eight children die before the age of five and in 2010 the region accounted for 56 per cent of all maternal deaths globally.72 Maternal mortality in South Sudan is the worst in the world with a national survey carried out in 2006 indicating 2054 deaths per 100 000 live births.

In partnership with the United Kingdom, Australia is making a significant contribution of $35 million over four years to a Health Pooled Fund to improve access to basic health care particularly for women and children in South Sudan.

In 2012–13 Australia provided $12.5 million to Ethiopia's Health Sector Development Program IV, primarily through the Health Millennium Development Goal Performance Fund—a multi-donor pooled fund managed by the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health. The program is recognised for its success in improving access to health services over the past 10 years and is widely acknowledged as one of Africa's strongest performing central government health programs.

Water, sanitation and hygiene

Africa is off track to meet the Millennium Development Goal targets for improving access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Thirty-nine per cent of people in Sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to safe drinking water73 and 70 per cent of people do not have access to improved sanitation facilities.74 Southern Africa has the highest rates of inequality in access to water in Africa.75

In 2012–13 AusAID invested $33 million in water and sanitation programs in Southern Africa, specifically in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

These programs will improve public health by increasing access to safe water and sanitation, and building knowledge of hygiene practices. We are also supporting the Southern African Development Community to improve the management of transboundary water resources. This will help increase water security and manage the effects of climate change.

Australia plays a lead role in the water and sanitation sector in Zimbabwe. In partnership with the German aid agency, GIZ, Australia is contributing $25 million over three years to the Germany–Australia Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Program. This program will provide a sustainable water supply and sanitation services to six towns in Zimbabwe, which will benefit more than one million people.

In Mozambique, Australia has been working with three partners—the World Bank, United Nations Children's Fund and Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor—to improve access to safe water and sanitation in peri-urban areas of Maputo and seven towns in central and northern Mozambique.

Mining governance

Australia is working with African governments to improve governance and transparency in the mining sector through the Mining for Development program. Around 30 per cent of global mineral reserves are found in Africa and two thirds of African countries have mining activities underway. Drawing on Australia's own experience and expertise in mining, our support primarily focuses on helping African countries achieve economic growth and deliver social benefits through the effective governance of the sector. Australia is a leading donor in mining governance, and the Mining for Development program places Australia among the top two or three donors to the continent's resources sector.

In 2012–13, Australia spent approximately $18 million on mining-related assistance to 44 African countries. This assistance was mainly through Australia Awards Scholarships, targeted technical assistance and mining governance study tours which gave African government officials insight into Australia's experience in natural resource management. Assistance in 2012–13 included:

  • facilitating study tours to Australia for 317 officials from 33 African countries, including a study focused on women in mining which examined gender issues in the mining sector
  • providing technical support to the Ghana Revenue Authority's large taxpayer unit to strengthen management of mineral resources revenue and to ensure that mining revenue benefits local communities
  • contributing $3 million to the African Minerals Development Centre to support the African Union's African Mining Vision policy.

The Australia Awards build the skills of students so they can have an impact upon their return home. For example, drawing on the strategies he learned while studying in Australia in 2012, one finance ministry official has lifted his government's revenue by tens of millions of dollars by improving taxation management and the audit of extractives companies.

Humanitarian assistance

Africa is home to some of the most intractable and complex humanitarian situations in the world. Protracted crises, exacerbated by drought, political instability, armed conflict and displacement, affect the lives of vulnerable people and erode their capacity to recover from future disasters and crises. These represent a major hurdle for developing African countries and can seriously undermine recent development gains. Australia continued to be a responsive humanitarian donor in 2012–13, working to meet immediate emergency needs, build the resilience of vulnerable communities to respond to future climatic, economic and conflict-related shocks, and complement Australia's longer-term preparedness and agriculture programs.

In 2012–13, Australia provided over $85 million in humanitarian assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of which was in response to crises in South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, Kenya, Sudan and the Sahel region of West Africa, including Mali.

Australia's funding assisted partners to:

  • provide life-saving assistance to 1.2 million Somali, Eritrean and Sudanese refugees in Ethiopia and Kenya (World Food Programme)
  • provide more than 2.7 million people in South Sudan with food distributions, food for assets and nutrition programs to support families living in emergencies (World Food Programme)
  • provide food rations to 1.7 million residents and internally displaced people in conflict and drought affected areas of Somalia (International Committee of the Red Cross)
  • provide emergency relief to more than 1.1 million people whose food security had been compromised by the conflict in Mali, the Sahel food crisis or other disasters (International Committee of the Red Cross)
  • vaccinate and provide emergency treatment to more than 20 million animals in Somalia, benefiting the livelihood of 3.1 million people by the end of 2012 (Food and Agriculture Organization)
  • ensure more than 5000 victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo had access to adequate support by referring them to timely medical treatment, supporting counselling centres and training community counsellors (International Committee of the Red Cross).

A map of the South and West Asia region. The countries are colour coded according to how much aid they received from Australia in 2012–13.

* Amount does not include humanitarian assistance during 2012–13.

 

South and West Asia

South and West Asia have experienced strong economic growth averaging six per cent a year over the past two decades, which has driven an impressive reduction in poverty. It is the second fastest growing region in the world after East Asia. However, development gains are coming from a low base and performance continues to be varied both within and between countries.

South and West Asia is home to 44 per cent of the world's poor and has the largest number of poor people—31 per cent of the population or approximately 507 million people, live on less than USD1.25 a day.76 Poverty and vulnerability is concentrated in lagging subregions, especially along borders and in landlocked areas, with inequality on the rise. Despite economic growth, large numbers of people are being left behind, particularly vulnerable groups who have suffered historic disadvantage, including women, children, ethnic minorities and people with disability. Within these groups health, education, gender equality and nutrition indicators are dire.

Development progress in South and West Asia is constrained by conflict, insecurity, political instability and corruption, limiting the prospects of some countries to achieve targets under the Millennium Development Goals. Access to essential services (education, health care, sanitation) is limited by weak governance and institutional capacity. A severe infrastructure deficit, particularly in energy and transport, poor regional connectivity and integration, and low agricultural productivity are hampering accelerated economic growth and poverty reduction.

Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh are amongst the top 10 recipients of Australian aid in 2012–13. Australia also provides assistance to Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, the Maldives and through the South and West Asia regional program. Bilateral assistance to India was phased out in 2012–13. This corresponds with the Indian Government's preferences on receiving aid. Australian official development assistance to the South and West Asia region was an estimated $493.4 million in 2012–13, and has increased by more than 50 per cent over the last five years.

Figure 13: Estimated total Australian ODA to South and West Asia by country 2012–13

Figure 13: A pie chart showing estimated total Australian official development assistance to South and West Asia 2012–13, broken up by country. This includes Afghanistan 37 per cent, Bangladesh 20 per cent, Pakistan 17 per cent, Sri Lanka nine per cent, Nepal seven per cent, India four per cent, Bhutan three per cent, Maldives two per cent and regional two per cent.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan Millennium Development Goals scorecard—Millennium Development Goal 1 cross, Millennium Development Goal 2 tick, Millennium Development Goal 3 cross, Millennium Development Goal 4 cross, Millennium Development Goal 5 tick, Millennium Development Goal 6 cross, Millennium Development Goal 7 cross.

Key statistics

Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals77

Population
29.82 million
Income level78
Low income
Gross domestic product per capita (PPP)79
Not available
Human Development Index rank
175 of 186
Australian ODA as a percentage of total ODA
1.8% (2009)   1.5% (2010)   2.4% (2011)

In 2012–13, Australia's country program aid to Afghanistan totalled $132.9 million. Other assistance through Australia's regional and global programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $182.8 million. Australia is the sixth largest bilateral aid donor to Afghanistan.

Afghanistan has a population of more than 35 million people. It remains one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 175 of 186 countries on the United Nations Human Development Index. Life expectancy is 48 years for men and 44 years for women. The country's human, physical and institutional infrastructure, long underdeveloped, has been crippled by over three decades of conflict. Access to basic services is severely limited, particularly in rural areas, where 20 per cent of households are food insecure. The majority of Afghans still live without electricity or sustainable access to clean water and sanitation. Gender inequality remains culturally entrenched. Afghanistan still ranks near the bottom of the United Nations Development Programme's Gender Inequality Index.

Afghanistan is the most difficult environment in which AusAID delivers a major aid program. Ongoing conflict, corruption and weak capacity continue to constrain development efforts but after a decade of international support, substantial gains have been made. With the Afghanistan Government and the international community, Australia has helped to:

  • increase school enrolments from around one million in 2001 to almost eight million today, including more than 2.9 million girls
  • increase access to basic health care services and systems, particularly for pregnant women and children with 39 per cent of births now attended by skilled attendants, compared to 24 per cent in 2007
  • create a three-fold increase in the proportion of functioning primary health care facilities with skilled female health workers, from 25 per cent in 2003 to 74 per cent in 2012
  • rehabilitate and maintain more than 12 800 kilometres of rural roads and provide food assistance to almost six million men, women and children in 2012 alone, and more than 28 million beneficiaries since 2009, through the World Food Programme.

Afghanistan will complete the process of transition to Afghan security by the end of 2014. The military withdrawal is likely to have a substantial economic impact, including on employment prospects for Afghanistan's rapidly growing population. Presidential elections in 2014 will mark a crucial political transition. Sustained international support will be required throughout this period and into the transformation decade (2014–2021) for Afghanistan to consolidate and build on the advances made in the last 10 years.

Australia's aid program to Afghanistan is underpinned by a Development Framework Agreement 2012–2017, signed by Australia and Afghanistan in July 2012. The Afghanistan Government has agreed to a number of important commitments under the 2012 Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework, including action on economic reform, governance, anti-corruption, elections, and the rights of women and girls.

The Australian aid program focuses on:

  • enhancing basic service delivery in health and education with initiatives ranging from access to basic education, particularly for girls living in rural and remote areas, through to tertiary education and professional training for teachers and support for health services across Afghanistan
  • supporting rural development and livelihoods with initiatives ranging from grants for small-scale development projects to providing training in better agricultural practices and improved agricultural technologies to basic food security for communities
  • improving governance and the effectiveness of the Afghanistan Government by providing training and building the government's capacity to deliver basic services and govern effectively
  • supporting vulnerable populations, recognising Afghanistan's ongoing humanitarian needs.

Australian aid to Afghanistan has a particular focus on women and girls, including supporting the elimination of violence against women. In June 2013, as part of a $17.7 million investment, Australia commenced three initiatives to support national efforts in Afghanistan to improve the provision of services for women affected by violence, increase access to justice for survivors of violence, and improve violence prevention strategies for women and girls.

Working closely with the Afghanistan Government and a range of development partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of Afghans in 2012–13.

We have been saving lives by:

  • helping vaccinate more than 228 000 children against polio
  • helping immunise 112 208 children
  • supporting family planning, antenatal and postnatal care, and tetanus toxoid vaccination for more than 311 000 women
  • supporting 120 057 people in all 34 provinces with food assistance, including 54 026 women, providing emergency food assistance to more than 62 000 drought affected people through the World Food Programme
  • supporting mobile health teams that reached more than 256 000 people, including in response to flash floods and cholera and measles outbreaks.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • working with other donors to support the Education Quality Improvement Program which is increasing enrolment of children in Grades 1 to 12 by 1.4 million—from 6.3 million in 2008 to 7.7 million in 2012
  • conducting 598 human rights monitoring missions on detention centres in 29 provinces and human rights awareness workshops and meetings reaching 11 307 people (4828 women and 6479 men) between July and November 2012
  • supporting 565 school construction projects in 2012 and another 1057 projects to rehabilitate or construct schools through the Education Quality Improvement Program
  • providing 5418 textbooks through the Empowerment Through Education and Children of Uruzgan programs, providing community-based education for children living in remote and insecure areas
  • training 672 teachers, about a quarter of who are women, and 506 health workers, 45 per cent of who are women, through the Empowerment Through Education project
  • delivering 50 early childhood development classes to 1000 children aged from three to six-years-old through the Children of Uruzgan program, including 318 girls in 2012.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • contributing to the National Solidarity Program, funded through the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund, reaching more than 27 000 communities and distributing more than 50 000 grants for small-scale development projects
  • training more than 1600 farmers in Bamyan and Parwan provinces (including 713 women farmers) in better agricultural practices and improved agricultural technologies in 2012
  • preparing 2640 square kilometres of land contaminated with mines and explosive remnants of war for productive use
  • contributing to programs that have rehabilitated 116 kilometres of rural roads, providing local jobs.

We have been promoting effective governance by:

  • supporting the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund to enable:
    • five Afghan line ministries to undertake internal audits and meet international standards
    • six line ministries to be certified in procurement management processes, representing 40 per cent of civilian government expenditure
    • 21 ministries to complete pay and grading increases (up from eight ministries in 2011)
  • assisting Uruzgan Province to improve the capacity of its provincial administration through training and internship programs, which have doubled the number of civil servant positions filled from around 30 per cent in 2009 to 60 per cent today.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh Millennium Development Goals scorecard—Millennium Development Goal 1 cross, Millennium Development Goal 2 cross, Millennium Development Goal 3 tick, Millennium Development Goal 4 tick, Millennium Development Goal 5 cross, Millennium Development Goal 6 tick, Millennium Development Goal 7 cross.

Key statistics

Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals80

Population
154.7 million
Income level81
Low income
Gross domestic product per capita (PPP)82
USD1883
Human Development Index rank
146 of 186
Australian ODA as a percentage of total ODA
2.8% (2009)   2.4% (2010)   3.6% (2011)

In 2012–13, Australia's country program aid to Bangladesh totalled $84.8 million. Other assistance through Australia's regional and global programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $97.3 million. Australia is in the top 10 of bilateral aid donors to Bangladesh. Our work in education, health and livelihoods is helping reduce vulnerability to poverty and is supporting the country's vision for equitable economic development.

Long-term growth in Bangladesh's economy, together with government leadership and assistance from partners, has helped the country significantly reduce poverty levels, improve mortality rates and increase access to schools. However a recent slow-down in growth and increasing political instability is putting these gains at risk. Women remain particularly vulnerable to the impacts of poverty with uneven access to services and resources.

Australian aid to Bangladesh is guided by the Australia–Bangladesh Aid Strategy (2012–2016) under which the Australian Government aims to:

  • increase access to quality education and health services for marginalised groups, especially women and children
  • reduce the number of people living in extreme poverty and vulnerability to natural and economic shocks
  • strengthen the ability of women and marginalised groups to demand services.

Australia achieved positive progress in education by supporting Bangladesh's education sector programs with other donors. The net primary enrolment rate has increased over the last six years to 95 per cent, there is gender parity in enrolments and the completion rate is steadily improving. Australia is taking a leadership role in the sector as co-chair of the donor group supporting the government's primary education program, which reaches more than 18 million children. Last year, this support helped the Bangladesh Government undertake its first credible national assessment of students, which will allow educators to track improvements in learning outcomes. While there are positive signs, more progress is needed to ensure education services reach the extreme poor, including in urban areas. Australia also works with Bangladesh's largest non-government organisation—BRAC—to provide pre-primary and primary school education to extremely poor children who may otherwise not have access to schooling.

Australia has contributed to gains in health working through partnerships with government, other donors and civil society. Over the last four years access to antenatal care, contraception and supervised deliveries have all risen. Last year, a long-term health financing strategy was finalised and development partners helped the government revise its maternal health strategy. Despite these positive signs, large-scale reforms to national health systems, including supporting effective service delivery in urban areas, remain a challenge requiring further investment.

Australia provided direct support for poverty alleviation and helped reduce vulnerability to shocks in 2012–13. In partnerships with BRAC and the United Kingdom, Australia provided cash transfers, productive assets and business skills training to help more than 88 000 female-headed families lift themselves out of poverty. Despite impressive reductions in poverty levels, the number of vulnerable people in Bangladesh remains large. Australia is helping to redress this through support for long-term policy reform aimed at strengthening government social safety nets and protection programs. Australia also helped the government and communities strengthen their disaster response capability, implement the government's climate change strategy and was one of the few donors providing humanitarian support to extremely poor people along the border with Myanmar.

Working closely with the Bangladesh Government and a range of development partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of Bangladeshis in 2012–13.

We have been saving lives by:

  • helping 490 905 people (49 per cent women) to access safe water and basic sanitation
  • supporting an additional 354 222 children to be vaccinated against measles, whooping cough, polio and other diseases
  • helping 98 859 additional births to be supported by skilled birth attendants.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • supporting 479 248 children to enrol in primary school
  • helping more than 190 000 children (50 per cent girls) complete pre-primary and primary school
  • providing 128 Australia Awards in the areas of social and economic policies, management capacity and health.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • improving food security and livelihood opportunities of more than 88 000 women and their families through access to cash transfers, productive assets and training
  • helping 15 280 families to raise the level of their homes in areas vulnerable to the impacts of seasonal flooding and climate change.

We have been preparing for and responding to humanitarian emergencies and disasters by:

  • improving food security for 200 000 refugees and host communities along the Bangladesh–Myanmar border through food distribution and school feeding
  • helping the government develop and test a joint needs assessment process to be used in the event of a disaster. This will strengthen the government's ability to lead and coordinate disaster response efforts in the future.

Pakistan

Pakistan Millennium Development Goals scorecard—Millennium Development Goal 1 cross, Millennium Development Goal 2 cross, Millennium Development Goal 3 tick, Millennium Development Goal 4 tick, Millennium Development Goal 5 cross, Millennium Development Goal 6 tick, Millennium Development Goal 7 tick.

Key statistics

Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals83

Population
179.2 million
Income level
Lower middle income
Gross domestic product per capita (PPP)84
USD2891
Human Development Index rank
146 of 186
Australian ODA as a percentage of total ODA
1.5% (2009)   3.1% (2010)   1.8% (2011)

In 2012–13, Australia's country program aid to Pakistan totalled $63.3 million. Other assistance through Australia's regional and global programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $85.7 million. Australia is in the top 10 of bilateral aid donors to Pakistan.

Pakistan's development challenges are considerable, with high levels of poverty and illiteracy and a large proportion of the population remaining vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters and conflict. Progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals remains slow, particularly the goals on extreme hunger and poverty, primary education, and maternal and child health.

Pakistan also faces a challenging economic outlook with low growth and high inflation and unemployment. Under an International Monetary Fund stand-by agreement, Pakistan is scheduled to repay $5 billion before September 2015 which will put considerable pressure on the country's balance of payments and ability to provide basic services to its people.

Australia supports the Pakistan Government's efforts to achieve a stable, secure, democratic country through equitable social and economic development and poverty reduction in line with the Millennium Development Goals. The Australian–Pakistan Development Partnership, signed in October 2011, guides Australia's aid program. Australia and Pakistan have agreed to direct efforts to the provinces and sectors most in need, so the aid program focuses on the two provinces Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan, and three primary sectors:

  • saving lives (health)
  • promoting opportunities for all (education)
  • sustainable economic development (agriculture and rural development).

Australia also provides governance support and humanitarian assistance.

Since 2008, Australia has supported the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Government to improve access to, and the quality of, basic education, focusing on early childhood learning. In 2013, the provincial government demonstrated its commitment to early childhood education by formalising the four-year-old starting age for pre-primary classes and allocating government funds to build 500 early childhood classrooms. The government has also taken measures to ensure that 70 per cent of ODA provided for education is allocated to girls.

Australia supports national efforts to improve maternal and child health care and nutrition and the prevention of avoidable blindness. In partnership with the United Nations, we have supported improvements in nutritional outcomes for mothers and children under five years of age. In the past year those efforts resulted in 209 877 pregnant and lactating women and 331 731 children under five being screened for malnutrition, and 8043 severely malnourished children treated in outpatient therapeutic programs.

Australia supported the Electoral Commission of Pakistan in preparing for national and provincial elections on 11 May 2013. In spite of violence during the election campaign, voter turnout was estimated at a record 60 per cent, with an increased number of women voting. These elections were an important milestone in Pakistan's democratic process as they marked the first transfer of power from one democratically elected government to another since independence.

Pakistan is a complex operating environment and the two focal provinces for Australia's assistance are among the most difficult places to deliver and monitor aid. The security environment significantly limits the ability of our partners to safely deliver aid and the ability of Australian officials to directly monitor aid programs.

Working closely with the Pakistan Government and a range of development partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of Pakistanis in 2012–13.

We have been saving lives by:

  • helping prevent malnutrition by funding nutritional support to more than 41 000 women
  • helping prevent avoidable blindness by funding more than 13 000 cataract surgeries and screening 4541 children for eye diseases
  • helping train 9200 health care workers in improved management of newborn and childhood illnesses and maternal health.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • assisting Pakistani communities address education needs by refurbishing 254 early childhood education classrooms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit Baltistan which can be used by more than 67 000 children
  • training 7316 teachers in early childhood education principles, classroom management and disability-inclusive education in Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit Baltistan
  • providing Australia Awards to 139 Pakistani students to undertake postgraduate studies in Australia. This includes eight students undertaking studies in the agricultural sector.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • supporting the completion of 445 community projects in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, repairing key infrastructure damaged by the 2010 floods such as roads and bridges, and benefiting 89 182 households
  • assisting 90 farmers in Punjab Province to increase their annual income by up to $100 by adopting improved farm management practices
  • providing agricultural assistance through the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research that improved farming practices and increased farmers' incomes in mango, citrus and dairy production in Punjab and Sindh provinces.

We have been promoting effective governance by:

  • helping train 332 000 election officials and deliver 65 000 transparent ballot boxes in preparation for the 11 May elections.

We have been preparing for and responding to humanitarian emergencies and disasters by:

  • providing emergency food rations for up to 975 000 people displaced by conflict
  • supporting the transportation, processing and distribution of 8392 metric tonnes of wheat for people affected by the 2012 Pakistan floods.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka Millennium Development Goals scorecard—Millennium Development Goal 1 tick, Millennium Development Goal 2 tick, Millennium Development Goal 3 tick, Millennium Development Goal 4 tick, Millennium Development Goal 5 tick, Millennium Development Goal 6 tick, Millennium Development Goal 7 tick.

Key statistics

Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals85

Population
20.33 million
Income level
Lower middle income
Gross domestic product per capita (PPP)86
USD6247
Human Development Index rank
92 of 186
Australian ODA as a percentage of total ODA
4.3% (2009)   5.8% (2010)   5.3% (2011)

In 2012–13, Australia's country program to Sri Lanka totalled $25.7 million. Other assistance through Australia's regional and global programs and through other government agencies, including the Department of Immigration and Citizenship, brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $42.6 million. Australia is the second largest bilateral aid donor to Sri Lanka. Our aid is helping people access basic services and improve livelihoods, particularly those living in Sri Lanka's lagging regions.

Sri Lanka continues to make impressive progress on a range of national economic and social indicators. Growth was 6.2 per cent in 2012 and is projected to stay at or above this rate for the next five years. National unemployment figures are low, around four per cent, although this masks stark regional and gender disparities. Social indicators at the national level continue to improve. Sri Lanka is in the high human development category in the 2012 Human Development Index—a first for any South Asian nation. This indicates sound national progress on measures of social development such as health, education and life expectancy, and the country remains on track to meet all Millennium Development Goals if it can improve progress on nutrition. However, 23.9 per cent of Sri Lankans live on less than USD2 a day and those earning marginally more remain vulnerable to economic and social shocks.

Government spending on health and education is relatively low compared to other middle income countries. Funding levels have fallen from 2011 levels—from 1.9 to 1.8 per cent of gross domestic product for health, and from 1.4 to 1.3 per cent of gross domestic product for education. Nutrition remains a serious national issue: stunting rates from inadequate nutrition range from eight per cent in Colombo to 41 per cent in the hill country district of Nuwara Eliya. While school completion rates are generally high, education quality and student performance on national exams are mixed. This is particularly concerning in lagging regions, including plantation regions and areas of northern and eastern provinces recovering from the civil war.

Australian aid to Sri Lanka is guided by the Australia–Sri Lanka Aid Program Strategy 2012–2016. The two objectives of the Sri Lanka program are:

  • improved social and economic indicators in Sri Lanka's lagging regions
  • policies and programs for inclusive growth and improved service delivery implemented at national and sub-national levels.

Australian aid focuses on the following major themes:

  • sustainable broad-based economic development with a focus on economic infrastructure, private sector development and livelihoods
  • health, including water supply, hygiene and sanitation
  • education, including primary, secondary and technical and vocational education and training.

Australian aid is delivered mostly through partners, such as the World Bank, United Nations Children's Fund and Australian non-government organisations, and in support of the Sri Lankan Government's development plans. AusAID officers in Sri Lanka undertake regular field visits, particularly in lagging regions, to ensure our aid is reaching those in need.

Working closely with the Sri Lankan Government and a range of development partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of Sri Lankans in 2012–13.

We have been saving lives by:

  • providing 200 schools with improved water and sanitation facilities and hygiene education that is benefiting about 37 000 students and 2500 teachers
  • accelerating the pace of demining to facilitate safe returns, including clearing an additional 4.6 square kilometres of landmines, to support Sri Lanka's goal of being mine free by 2020.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • increasing knowledge and skills of 27 000 children in conflict-affected areas through an accelerated learning program
  • reconstructing 20 schools in the Northern Province damaged by the civil conflict allowing 7500 children to continue their education in permanent, durable and high quality education facilities
  • supporting education administrators, principals, teachers and communities in selected regions to adopt a participatory and inclusive child-friendly schools approach approved by the Ministry of Education
  • providing 95 Australia Awards in the priority areas of education, health, environment and governance.

We have been promoting effective governance by:

  • helping improve local government performance through better revenue collection, and establishing public redress systems to inform local authorities about public satisfaction with service delivery
  • influencing policies related to housing reconstruction programs in conflict-affected areas through an owner-driven model, which has been acknowledged as best practice by the Sri Lankan Government and other agencies.

We have been preparing and responding to humanitarian emergencies and disasters by:

  • repairing or rebuilding about 4000 permanent houses in northern Sri Lanka.

Nepal

Nepal Millennium Development Goals scorecard—Millennium Development Goal 1 cross, Millennium Development Goal 2 cross, Millennium Development Goal 3 cross, Millennium Development Goal 4 tick, Millennium Development Goal 5 tick, Millennium Development Goal 6 tick, Millennium Development Goal 7 cross.

Key statistics

Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals87

Population
27.47 million
Income level88
Low income
Gross domestic product per capita (PPP)89
USD1484
Human Development Index rank
157 of 186
Australian ODA as a percentage of total ODA
1.1% (2009)   2.5% (2010)   2.8% (2011)

In 2012–13, Australia's country program aid to Nepal totalled $15.1 million. Other assistance through Australia's regional and global programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $33.5 million. Australia is in the top 10 of bilateral aid donors to Nepal.

Nepal is the one of the poorest countries in the world, with around one quarter of its population living in poverty. As an emerging democracy, Nepal has struggled with stability and governance following the end of a 10-year civil conflict in 2006. The last 18 months have seen a period of political stalemate and consequent economic slowdown. National elections, which have been repeatedly delayed, are planned for late 2013 and are seen as a precondition for progressing unresolved issues from the peace agreement, including constitutional reform.

Despite its challenges, Nepal is on track to meet a number of the Millennium Development Goals. Targets relating to health and education, with the exception of the target on primary school completion rate, will all be achieved by 2015. These represent promising development gains and reflect a strong, concerted effort by public administrators and development partners to deliver health and education services nationally.

Key priorities for the Nepal program are to:

  • strengthen government service delivery, particularly to poor and traditionally marginalised groups
  • protect development gains in the context of ongoing vulnerability to external shocks and continuing political and budgetary uncertainty
  • support policy reform that contributes to greater transparency, accountability and effectiveness.

Working closely with the Government of Nepal and a range of development partners, including bilateral donors, non-government organisations, United Nations agencies and other multilateral partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of Nepalese in 2012–13.

We have been saving lives by:

  • helping reduce under five mortality from 118 to 54 deaths per 1000 live births
  • providing about 20 400 people with safe drinking water and about 13 800 people with basic sanitation facilities in poor and marginalised communities.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • improving access to primary education by supporting 48 762 more children to attend school
  • improving access to primary education by providing financial and nutritional support to around 20 500 students
  • providing 68 Australia Awards to build future leadership in Nepal.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • helping increase the net income of 7750 people from extremely poor and marginalised groups.

Aid to other South Asian countries

In 2012–13, Australia's country program aid to Bhutan and the Maldives totalled $7.8 million. Other Australian assistance through regional and global programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to these countries to an estimated $24 million.

Bhutan has made significant development progress, particularly in the past decade, and is on track to achieve its targets under the Millennium Development Goals. The number of people living below the national poverty line fell from around 32 per cent of the population in 2003 to 23 per cent in 2007, and the Government of Bhutan's Tenth Five Year Plan 2008–2013 aimed to reduce the rate to less than 15 per cent by mid-2013. The aid program to Bhutan supports human resource development by providing scholarships and support to the Bhutan Royal Institute of Management.

The Maldives is on track to achieve five out of seven Millennium Development Goals, and has recently graduated from a least developed country to a middle income country. However, such successes mask widespread disparities in wealth and persistent human development challenges—12 per cent of the population lives on less than USD2 a day, and malnutrition in children under the age of five remains high at around 15 per cent. The Maldivian economy is vulnerable to external shocks. Political instability and natural disaster risks are high. Australia's program to the Maldives provides scholarships, support to primary education and support to the government's climate change adaptation and mitigation program.

The Australian Government decided to phase out bilateral aid to India by 2013–14. Targeted assistance to India will continue through multilateral organisations and regional or global programs where we can make a difference to poor people. Under the India bilateral program, $2.9 million was provided in 2012–13 and is the final country program allocation to India. Through this bilateral program Australia supported climate change planning, the development of more water efficient agricultural practices and improved water and sanitation services.

Working closely with partner governments and a range of development partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of people in South Asia in 2012–13.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • providing Australia Awards to 140 students from Bhutan and 48 students from the Maldives
  • improving institutional capacity of the Bhutan Royal Institute of Management to deliver in-country masters programs. As a result some of its courses are now accredited by Australian universities
  • providing meals to more than 36 000 children (equal numbers of girls and boys) in 227 schools, through support to the World Food Programme.

We have been encouraging sustainable development by:

  • reducing vulnerability to climate change and improving food security for farmers in the East India Plateau by supporting better farming practices and crop diversification.

We have been promoting effective governance by:

  • strengthening the capacity of the Electoral Commission of Bhutan to conduct credible and effective elections by training 75 staff in the program Building Resources in Democracy, Governance and Elections
  • supporting key justice institutions in the Maldives to attend forums on community mediation and criminal law to discuss issues such as developing alternative dispute resolution, strengthening the legal profession and providing victim support.

South and West Asia regional program

In 2012–13, Australia's South and West Asia regional aid program totalled $19.7 million. This program addresses cross-border development challenges that cannot solely be addressed at the country level, and funds multi-country programs in governance, health, water and sanitation, and gender. The World Bank and Asian Development Bank are important regional partners.

The region is characterised by a lack of effective arrangements for regional cooperation and the promotion of regional integration. Australia is identifying opportunities to support improved regional economic integration and enable countries to address transboundary challenges such as the impacts of climate change and the need to improve water resource management.

Working closely with partner governments and a range of development partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of people in South Asia in 2012–13.

We have been saving lives by:

  • providing more than 370 000 maternal and child health services and 3.8 million family planning and sexual and reproductive health services.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • improving regional water resource management across the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins. The first strategic assessment of the Ganges Basin has been completed, which made recommendations on key issues of climate change adaptation, hydropower development, flood control and groundwater use in the basin, affecting up to 500 million people
  • completing feasibility studies for governments to improve policy and planning for transport, urban development, water and sanitation, telecommunications and irrigation.

We have been promoting effective governance by:

  • launching centres of excellence with the World Bank in Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. These provide courses and training for officials, private sector and not-for-profit staff in key aspects of planning and community engagement related to major infrastructure projects across the region.

A map of the Middle East and North Africa. The countries are colour coded according to how much aid they received from Australia in 2012–13.

* Amount does not include humanitarian assistance during 2012–13.

 

Middle East and North Africa

In 2012–13, Australian aid delivered under country and regional programs to the Middle East and North Africa (including the Palestinian Territories, Iraq, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, Syria, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria and Jordan) totalled $118 million. Additional assistance through other Australian aid programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $141.7 million.

While the situation varies from country to country, the 2012 Arab Human Development Report highlights common challenges across the region including access to education, governance, empowerment of women, food security and human security. While 50 per cent of the Arab population is rural, agricultural productivity is low. The region has one of the highest unemployment rates in the developing world. The ongoing conflict in Syria constitutes an unprecedented humanitarian disaster with region-wide consequences.

Progress against the Millennium Development Goals across the region has been challenging, particularly in areas affected by conflict such as Iraq, Syria, the Palestinian Territories and Yemen. The Arab region continues to be characterised by sharp differences between subregions, particularly between the high income countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council and the Arab least developed countries. Large differences exist in both the level of development and also in progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Despite this, some important gains are being made, including in health and education.

Figure 14: Estimated total Australian ODA to the Middle East and North Africa by country 2012–13

Figure 14:A pie chart showing total estimated Australian official development assistance to the Middle East and North Africa in 2012–13, broken up by country. This includes Palestinian Territories 39 per cent, Syria 19 per cent, Iraq 19 per cent, Egypt seven per cent, Yemen four per cent, regional North Africa three per cent, Jordan three per cent, regional Middle East two per cent, Lebanon two per cent, and other countries one per cent.

Middle East and North Africa regional response

In 2012–13, Australia's Middle East and North Africa regional aid programs contributed a total of $64.3 million to the regional response. Australia continues to deliver assistance to help the rural poor, the transition towards democracy, and to respond to major humanitarian crises.

Australia is a small aid donor to the region, but is helping Egypt and Tunisia to improve food security through agricultural research, building electoral capacity and increasing income through employment generation with a focus on young people and women. Throughout 2012–13 Australia also continued to help alleviate the suffering arising from humanitarian crises in Syria and Yemen. Australia was among the top 10 donors responding to the displacement of more than six million people as a result of the Syria crisis, and provided more than $62 million in humanitarian assistance in 2012–13.

Working closely with partner governments and development partners including the World Bank, United Nations, international humanitarian organisations and other donors, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of people in the Middle East and North Africa in 2012–13.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • helping create up to 5000 jobs for young people in Egypt through training and matching labour market demand with supply through GIZ and the International Labour Organization
  • supporting research through the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research to improve food security and livelihoods of farmers in Egypt and Tunisia. There are plans to extend this initiative to Algeria and Morocco.

We have been preparing and responding to humanitarian emergencies and disasters by:

  • delivering food relief to 1.2 million women and children, supporting increased food security for 5000 households, and extending assistance to 20 000 conflict-affected people in Yemen
  • helping maintain food supplies for more than two million people and providing emergency medical assistance and medical supplies to up to 800 000 internally displaced people in Syria
  • contributing to international efforts to provide protection and basic services to more than 1.5 million Syrian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey and Iraq
  • delivering cash assistance and non-food items such as blankets, cooking sets and hygiene materials to 53 000 Palestinian refugees who had fled Syria to Lebanon.

Palestinian Territories

Palestinian Territories Millennium Development Goals scorecard—Millennium Development Goal 1 cross, Millennium Development Goal 2 tick, Millennium Development Goal 3 tick, Millennium Development Goal 4 cross, Millennium Development Goal 5 tick, Millennium Development Goal 6 tick, Millennium Development Goal 7 tick.

Key statistics

Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals90

Population
4.047 million
Income level
Lower middle income
Gross domestic product per capita (PPP)91
Not available
Human Development Index rank
110 of 186
Australian ODA as a percentage of total ODA
1% (2009)   1.5% (2010)   1.6% (2011)

In 2012–13, Australia's country program aid to the Palestinian Territories totalled $36.4 million. Other assistance through Australia's regional and global programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $55.2 million. Australia is in the top 10 of bilateral aid donors to the Palestinian Territories.

Australia's aid to the Palestinian Territories aims to promote effective governance, improve rural livelihoods and improve the delivery of basic services to the vulnerable. Australia also works closely with partners, in particular the United Nations Relief and Works Agency and the Palestinian Authority, to deliver assistance.

Palestinians face poverty and disadvantage prolonged by conflict:

  • nearly a quarter of people in the Palestinian Territories are undernourished (around 870 000 of a total population of 4.1 million)
  • 40 per cent of Gaza's 1.6 million people live in poverty and almost a third of Gaza's workforce is unemployed.

Working closely with a range of development partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of Palestinians in 2012–13.

We have been saving lives by:

  • working with the United Nations Children's Fund to improve water and sanitation facilities in 68 schools, reaching more than 50 000 children
  • vaccinating 5400 children in United Nations Relief and Works Agency clinics.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • working with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency to help more than 14 940 Palestinian refugees attend school in the West Bank, Gaza, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan, with girls making up half of all enrolments
  • providing 300 refugees with disability and rehabilitation services each year.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • working with Australian non-government organisations to help 6088 farming families increase their incomes by more than 25 per cent
  • providing 8814 poor women and men with access to social transfers such as cash or food
  • helping more than 4500 farmers access new agricultural technologies, increasing crop production by more than 30 per cent
  • providing 1086 people with access to loans to start small businesses.

We have been promoting effective governance by:

  • supporting the Palestinian Authority's economic reforms of improving transparency of public procurement and national budget processes and reducing the public sector wage bill by 0.7 per cent
  • helping the Palestinian Authority improve public financial management and reduce the national budget deficit from 15.8 per cent in 2011 to 14.5 per cent in 2012.

We have been preparing for and responding to humanitarian emergencies and disasters by:

  • supporting the provision of essential services to five million Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank through a $90 million five-year partnership with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency.

Iraq

Iraq Millennium Development Goals scorecard—Millennium Development Goal 1 cross, Millennium Development Goal 2 cross, Millennium Development Goal 3 tick, Millennium Development Goal 4 cross, Millennium Development Goal 5 cross, Millennium Development Goal 6 cross, Millennium Development Goal 7 cross.

Key statistics

Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals92

Population
32.58 million
Income level
Upper middle income
Gross domestic product per capita (PPP)93
USD4246
Human Development Index rank
131 of 186
Australian ODA as a percentage of total ODA
1.9% (2009)   2.4% (2010)   2% (2011)

In 2012–13, Australia's country program aid to Iraq totalled $17.3 million. Other assistance through Australia's regional and global programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $26.9 million. Australia is one of the largest bilateral aid donors to Iraq.

Australian aid to Iraq will be phased out by 2015 as the country's capacity to fund its own development increases. With the fifth largest reserves of oil and gas in the world, Iraq's future challenge will be to ensure the revenue generated, some USD100 billion annually, is used to benefit current and future generations. Most major donors are also scaling down assistance.

During 2012–13, Australia's assistance focused on building Iraqi capacity in the agricultural sector, improving public sector management and strengthening service delivery in education, vocational training and emergency medicine.

Working closely with the Government of Iraq and a range of development partners, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of Iraqis in 2012–13.

We have been saving lives by:

  • continuing to train doctors, nurses and public officials in life-saving emergency medicine and first aid.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • improving the quality of education for more than 12 000 marginalised and conflict-affected children—67 per cent girls—by constructing and rehabilitating 30 schools and training 420 teachers
  • providing vocational education and training to 200 extremely vulnerable households, including 112 female-headed households in vulnerable Iraqi communities to help them access stable incomes and livelihood opportunities.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • partnering with the Mines Advisory Group to clear and release 354 309 square metres of land from mines and other explosive remnants of war, benefiting 1407 people
  • expanding high yielding conservation cropping practices and techniques to three additional provinces, increasing productivity and incomes for poor farmers
  • supporting research to better understand the causes of soil salinity and improve small ruminant productivity.

We have been promoting effective governance by:

  • training more than 263 Iraqi public officials, including 52 women, from key ministries including agriculture, water resources, finance, migration and displacement, and human rights.

A map of Latin America and the Caribbean. The countries are colour coded according to how much aid they received from Australia in 2012–13.

* Amount does not include humanitarian assistance during 2012–13.

 

Latin America

In 2012–13, Australia's regional program to Latin America delivered a total of $9.3 million of Australian aid. Additional assistance through other Australian aid programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $32.5 million. Australia is a small donor to the region providing 0.2 per cent of total ODA, but we are well regarded and valued for our development and technical expertise and delivery of development results.

Australia provides support to 17 Latin American countries. Despite healthy indicators for some countries, almost one third of the Latin American population or more than 167 million people live below national poverty lines, and more than one in 10 cannot meet their basic food needs. Inequality in Latin America is high, with 10 of the world's 15 most unequal countries in the region. Natural disasters also dramatically impact on the region's ability to sustain economic development. Central America has the world's highest rates of tropical storms, hurricanes, floods, erupting volcanoes and earthquakes, while South America is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes and landslides. Regional progress towards the Millennium Development Goals remains mixed.

Australian aid to Latin America aims to reduce poverty and inequality in the region by:

  • building sustainable economic development by improving incomes, employment and enterprise opportunities and food security
  • promoting effective governance through scholarships, public sector development, professional development and support to civil society
  • responding to humanitarian disasters and enhancing disaster preparedness.

Australian aid in Latin America is delivered primarily through multilateral organisations, United Nations agencies and AusAID global programs. Programs are delivered on a regional basis targeting multiple countries where possible. Partnerships with Chile and Brazil combine resources and expertise to assist less developed countries.

Working closely with development partners in the region, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of Latin Americans in 2012–13.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • increasing the ability of more than 84 000 women (of a target of 100 000) in Peru to improve their incomes and provide for their families through financial literacy and business development training
  • enabling 3724 men and women in Columbia to access financial services such as savings, loans and insurance in areas where they were not previously able to.

We have been promoting effective governance by:

  • providing 147 Australia Awards, 56 per cent of which were for women. Australia Awards help to build professional capacity in areas such as public policy, water management and dispute resolution
  • linking Peru's ombudsman's office with Australia's ombudsman's office to help handle social conflict arising from land disputes and the use of natural resources.

We have been preparing for and responding to humanitarian emergencies and disasters by:

  • prepositioning approximately 2289 metric tonnes of food donated in preparation for natural disasters in Central America through a partnership with the World Food Programme
  • training Central American government agencies to respond to natural disasters in the region through the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.

Caribbean

In 2012–13, Australia's regional program to the Caribbean delivered a total of $6.5 million of Australian aid. Additional assistance through other Australian aid programs and through other government agencies brought Australia's total official development assistance (ODA) to an estimated $14.3 million. Australia is a small donor to the region providing 0.7 per cent of total ODA, with the bulk of assistance delivered through regional and multilateral partners. Our activities are aligned with regional priorities and benefit multiple countries across the region.

In the Caribbean 36 per cent of the population—13 million people—are classified as poor and live on less than USD2 a day. In Haiti, one of the world's poorest countries, 77 per cent of the population live on less than USD2 a day.

The Caribbean is one of the most disaster prone regions in the world. The costs associated with the frequent recurrence of natural disasters, particularly hurricanes, are high. This especially impacts smaller countries that are vulnerable to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, increased storm intensity and changed rainfall patterns. Climate change and disaster management remain key priorities for the member states of the Caribbean community.

The small open economies of the Caribbean are also vulnerable to external shocks, high unemployment, high debt and weak institutions, and many are facing fiscal and debt distress.

Australian aid to the Caribbean aims to reduce poverty and inequality in the region by:

  • improving effectiveness of communities, nations and regional partners to reduce the impact of climate change and natural disasters
  • enhancing capability within the Caribbean to manage and respond to regional economic challenges
  • promoting opportunities for interaction between Caribbean, Australian and Pacific citizens and leaders, which add to Caribbean knowledge and capacity to address climate change, natural disasters and economic challenges.

Australia's assistance includes funding to effective regional institutions and access to AusAID global programs such as scholarships, volunteers and humanitarian assistance. Australia's principal partner is the CARICOM Secretariat with which a memorandum of understanding was signed in 2009.

Working closely with CARICOM, partner governments and a range of development partners in the region, Australia has been able to make a real difference to the lives of people of the Caribbean in 2012–13.

We have been promoting opportunities for all by:

  • awarding 49 Australia Awards for tertiary study
  • helping train physical education teachers and community leaders in disability-inclusive activities.

We have been encouraging sustainable economic development by:

  • improving financial sector regulation and reducing barriers to regional trade
  • providing postgraduate scholarships for research at the University of the West Indies to increase regional climate change expertise
  • improving economic and social impact modelling on the likely impacts of climate change related to energy, marine resources, health, agriculture, water and tourism.

We have been preparing for and responding to humanitarian emergencies and disasters by:

  • improving Haiti's water and sanitation facilities following Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, including 24 additional toilet blocks and hand washing stations in schools and communities
  • integrating disaster risk reduction measures into capital works projects, introducing annual simulation exercises, updating disaster management policies and legislation, strengthening search and rescue capabilities, and improving national response coordination functions.

64 www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/may-2013/africa%E2%80%99s-youth-%E2%80%9Cticking-time-bomb%E2%80%9D-or-opportunity

65 The proportion of the population living on less than USD1 a day declined from 59 per cent in 1993 to 48 per cent in 2008 and those living under the USD2 poverty line fell from 78 to 69 per cent (World Bank, World Development Indicators).

66 Primary school enrolment increased from 71.6 per cent in 1990 to 99.6 per cent in 2010 (World Development Indicators).

67 There was a 25 per cent reduction in the rate of new HIV infections between 2001 and 2011, the number of people dying of AIDS-related illnesses fell by 32 per cent between 2005 and 2011, and the number of children newly infected with HIV decreased by 24 per cent from 2009 to 2011 (UNAIDS, World AIDS Day Report 2012).

68 The proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments increased from 9.7 per cent in 1997 to 19.8 per cent in 2011 (World Development Indicators).

69 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Eastern Africa humanitarian bulletin issue 24, 22 March to 22 April, http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Humanitarian%20Bulletin%20%2324%20OCHA%20EA.pdf

70 www.unocha.org/top-stories/all-stories/sahel-16-billion-appeal-address-widespread-humanitarian-crisis 13 January 2013.

71 2012 Millennium Development Goals Report, page 6.

72 2012 Millennium Development Goals Report, pages 30–31.

73 2012 Millennium Development Goals Report, page 52.

74 www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/sanitation.shtml

75 United Nations Habitat (2010), The state of African cities 2010, United Nations Human Settlements Program, Nairobi, Kenya.

76 World Bank (2013), World Development Indicators, Washington DC (2010 data)—http://data.worldbank.org/topic/poverty

77 Progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets is indicated by a tick (already achieved or on track), a cross (slow, regressing or no progress), or a dash (insufficient data to assess).

78 Afghanistan is also categorised as a least developed country, as defined by the United Nations.

79 Gross domestic product per capita (purchasing power parity) is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

80 Progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets is indicated by a tick (already achieved or on track), a cross (slow, regressing or no progress), or a dash (insufficient data to assess).

81 Bangladesh is also categorised as a least developed country, as defined by the United Nations.

82 Gross domestic product per capita (purchasing power parity) is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

83 Progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets is indicated by a tick (already achieved or on track), a cross (slow, regressing or no progress), or a dash (insufficient data to assess).

84 Gross domestic product per capita (purchasing power parity) is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

85 Progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets is indicated by a tick (already achieved or on track), a cross (slow, regressing or no progress), or a dash (insufficient data to assess).

86 Gross domestic product per capita (purchasing power parity) is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

87 Progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets is indicated by a tick (already achieved or on track), a cross (slow, regressing or no progress), or a dash (insufficient data to assess).

88 Nepal is also categorised as a least developed country, as defined by the United Nations.

89 Gross domestic product per capita (purchasing power parity) is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

90 Progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets is indicated by a tick (already achieved or on track), a cross (slow, regressing or no progress), or a dash (insufficient data to assess).

91 Gross domestic product per capita (purchasing power parity) is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

92 Progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets is indicated by a tick (already achieved or on track), a cross (slow, regressing or no progress), or a dash (insufficient data to assess).

93 Gross domestic product per capita (purchasing power parity) is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.