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Australian Government - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Advancing the interests of Australia and Australians internationally

Australian Government - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Advancing the interests of Australia and Australians internationally

Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office

Annual Report 2000-2001

Glossary of Abbreviations, Acronyms And Definitions


Brazilian-Argentine Safeguards Agency.

Additional Protocol

Published as IAEA document INFCIRC/540, the Additional Protocol is designed to complement a states Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguards system.


Australian Geological Survey Organisation.


Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation.


Australian Obligated Nuclear Material: nuclear material which is subject to obligations pursuant to one of Australias bilateral safeguards agreements. In practice it relates to Australian uranium and nuclear material derived from it (e.g. uranium hexafluoride, low enriched uranium, depleted uranium, plutonium).


Australian Obligated Plutonium (i.e. plutonium which is AONM).


Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency.


Australian Safeguards Support Program.


Nuclear Energy Control Board (Indonesia).


National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia).


Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacterialogical (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction.


Boiling Water Reactor: an LWR in which the moderator/coolant is used directly to produce steam for electricity generation.


Conference on Disarmament.

Challenge inspection

Under the CWC, an inspection that can be initiated by a State Party to resolve suspicions about a particular site.

Classical safeguards

The system of safeguards based on INFCIRC/153.

Complementary Access

The right of the IAEA pursuant the Additional Protocol to access a location to carry out verification activities.

Comprehensive safeguards agreement

Agreement between a state and the IAEA for the application of safeguards to all of the states current and future nuclear activities (equivalent to full scope safeguards)based on INFCIRC/153.


Processing of natural uranium into a gaseous compound, uranium hexafluoride, for use as the feedstock for uranium enrichment.


Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.


Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.


Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty OrganisationVienna based international organisation established to give effect to the CTBT.


Chemical Weapons Convention.

Depleted uranium

Uranium having a U-235 content less than that found in nature (i.e. as a result of uranium enrichment).


Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

DirectUse Material

Nuclear material defined for safeguards purposes as being useable for nuclear explosives without transmutation or further enrichment, e.g. plutonium, high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U‑233.

Discrete organic chemical (DOC)

Any chemical belonging to the class of chemical compounds consisting of all compounds of carbon, except for its oxides, sulphides and metal carbonates, identifiable by chemical name, by structural formula, if known, and by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry number, if assigned. Long chain polymers are not included in this definition.


United States Department of Energy.


Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea.


A physical or chemical process for increasing the proportion of a particular isotope. Uranium enrichment involves increasing the proportion of U-235 from its level in natural uranium, 0.711%: for LEU fuel the proportion of U-235 (the enrichment level) is typically increased to between 3% and 5%.


European Safeguards Research and Development Association.


The Atomic Energy Agency of the European Union. Its Safeguards Office is responsible for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden; and to all nuclear material in civil facilities in France and the UK.


(for CWC purposes) A plant, plant site or production/processing unit. [NB. for legal purposes, the term Facility, as it appears in provisions of the Chemical Weapons (Prohibition) Act, has the same meaning as plant site].

Facility Attachment

(for safeguards purposes) A document agreed between the IAEA and the relevant Member State which specifies the nuclear materials accountancy system for a specific facility, and defines the format and scope of inspection activities.

Fast neutron

A neutron in the fast energy range (>0.1 MeV).

Fast neutron reactor

A reactor that operates mainly with neutrons in the fast energy range. Because a moderator is not used, a fuel with a high energy density is required, usually plutonium (more specifically, MOX with a high proportion, e.g. 20-30%, of plutonium) or HEU. Through transmutation of U-238, a fast breeder reactor is designed to produce more plutonium than it consumes. However fast neutron reactors can also be operated as net plutonium consumers.


Referring to a nuclide capable of undergoing fission by thermal neutrons (e.g. U-233, U-235, Pu-239).


The splitting of an atomic nucleus into roughly equal parts, often by a neutron. In a fission reaction, a neutron collides with fissile nuclide (e.g. U-235) and splits, releasing energy and new neutrons. Many of these neutrons may go on to collide with other fissile nuclei, setting up a nuclear chain reaction.


Referring to a nuclide capable of undergoing fission by fast neutrons (e.g. Pu-240, Pu-242).


Proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty.

Full Scope Safeguards

The application of IAEA safeguards to all of a states present and future nuclear activities.


A form of carbon, used as a moderator in certain types of nuclear reactor. Graphite is a very efficient moderator, enabling uranium to be used in a fission reactor without enrichment.


Gigawatt (Giga = billion, 109).

GWe / GWt

Gigawatts of electrical / thermal power.

Heavy water (D2O)

Water containing the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium (hydrogen 2) which consists of a proton and a neutron. D2O occurs naturally as about one part in 6000 of ordinary water. D2O is a very efficient moderator, enabling uranium to be used in a fission reactor without enrichment.


High enriched uranium. Uranium enriched to 20% or more in U‑235. Weapons grade HEU has been enriched to over 90% U‑235.


High Flux Australian Reactor: the 10 MWt research reactor located at ANSTOs Lucas Heights Research Laboratories.


High temperature gas-cooled reactor.


Term referring to underwater propagation of pressure waves (sounds).


International Atomic Energy Agency.


Inventory Change Report. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.


International Data Centre. Data gathered by monitoring stations of the CTBT IMS network are compiled, analysed and archived by the Vienna based IDC. IDC products giving the results of analyses are made available to CTBT signatories.


International Monitoring SystemA network of 337 monitoring stations and analytical laboratories established pursuant to the CTBT which, together with the IDC, gather and analyse data with the aim of detecting any explosive nuclear testing.

IndirectUse Material

Nuclear material that cannot be used for a nuclear explosive without transmutation or further enrichment, e.g. depleted uranium, natural uranium, low-enriched uranium (LEU), and thorium.


Information Circular. A series of documents published by the IAEA setting out safeguards, physical protection and export control arrangements.

INFCIRC/66 Rev.2

The model safeguards agreement used by the IAEA since 1965. Essentially this agreement is facility-specific. In the case of non-nuclear-weapon states party to the NPT, it has been replaced by INFCIRC/153.

INFCIRC/153 (Corrected)

The model agreement used by the IAEA as a basis for negotiating safeguards agreements with non-nuclear-weapon states party to the NPT.

INFCIRC/225 Rev.4.(Corr)

IAEA document entitled The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities. Its recommendations reflect a consensus of views among IAEA Member States on desirable requirements for physical protection measures on nuclear material, that is, measures taken for its physical security.


Sound in the frequency range of 0.02 to 4 Hertz. One category of CTBT IMS stations will monitor sound at these frequencies with the aim of detecting explosive events such as a nuclear test explosion at a range up to 5000 km.


Institute of Nuclear Materials Management.

Integrated safeguards

The combination of classical and strengthened safeguards measures to give optimal effectiveness and cost-efficiency.


International Security Division, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.


Nuclides with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons, e.g. U-235 (92 protons and 143 neutrons) and U-238 (92 protons and 146 neutrons). The number of neutrons in an atomic nucleus, while not significantly altering its chemistry, does alter its properties in nuclear reactions.


Low Enriched Uranium; uranium enriched to less than 20% in U-235. Commonly LEU for use as LWR fuel is enriched to between 3% and 5% U-235.


Light Water Reactor. The most common type of power reactor, using ordinary (light) water as the moderator and coolant. Because light water is not an efficient moderator the uranium fuel must be slightly enriched (LEU).


Material Balance Area. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.


Material Balance Report. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.


ANSTOs university training reactor (Moata means firestick in an Aboriginal language). Now defuelled and awaiting decommissioning.


A material used to slow fast neutrons to thermal speeds where they can readily be absorbed by U-235 or plutonium nuclei and initiate a fission reaction. The most commonly used moderator materials are light water, heavy water or graphite.


Mixed oxide reactor fuel, consisting of a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxidesfor fresh LWR fuel the plutonium content is typically around 5%.


Material Unaccounted For. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.


Megawatt (Mega = million, 106).

MWe / MWt

Megawatts of electrical / thermal power.

Natural uranium

In nature uranium consists predominantly of the isotope U-238 (approx. 99.3%), with the fissile isotope U-235 comprising only 0.711%.


National Consultative Group, established by the Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1998 to provide advice in the context of negotiations on strengthening BWC Verification Protocol.


Nuclear Accountancy and Control.


Non-nuclear-weapon state(s).


Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.


Nuclear species characterised by the number of protons (atomic number) and the number of neutrons. The total number of protons and neutrons is called the mass number of the nuclide.


Nuclear-weapon state(s): those states recognised by the NPT as having nuclear weapons when the Treaty was concluded, that is, US, UK, Russia, France and China.


Other Chemical Production Facility: a facility that produces discrete organic chemicals in quantities exceeding thresholds defined in the CWC.


Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.


On-Site Inspectiona short notice challenge type inspection provided for in the CTBT as a means for investigation concerns about serious non-compliance the testing prohibition.


Physical Inventory Listing. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.


For CWC purposes, is defined as a relatively self-contained area, structure or building containing one or more units for the production, processing or consumption of a chemical, along with associated infrastructure.

Plant site

For CWC purposes, is defined as the local integration of one or more plants, with any intermediate administrative levels, which are under one operational control, and includes common infrastructure.


For CWC purposes, is defined as the formation of a chemical through chemical reaction. Production of chemicals specified by the CWC is declarable, even if produced as intermediates and irrespective of whether or not they are isolated.


Refers to an agreed delineated fuel cycle program (facilities and activities).


Pressurised water reactor: an LWR in which the moderator/coolant heats a secondary cooling circuit that produces steam for electricity generation.


Research and Development.


Processing of spent fuel to separate uranium and plutonium from highly radioactive fission products.


Republic of Korea.


Shipper/Receiver Difference. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.


Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation: an advisory group to the Director General of the IAEA.


South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty.


State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material: the national safeguards system required of each state under its safeguards agreement with the IAEA.


Compound originating from microorganisms animals or plants irrespective of the method of production whether natural or modified that can death, disease or ill health to humans, animals or plants.


Terawatt (tera = trillion, 1012).


Terawatt hours.


Isotope 233 of uranium, produced through neutron irradiation of thorium-232.


Isotope 235 of uranium (occurs as 0.711% of natural uranium), comprising 92 protons and 143 neutrons.


Isotope 238 of uranium (occurs as about 99.3% of natural uranium), comprising 92 protons and 146 neutrons.


Uranium hexafluoride, a gaseous compound of uranium and fluorine used as the feedstock for most enrichment processes.


Uranium Ore Concentrates (i.e. yellowcake).

U3O8 equivalent

Not all UOC has the same composition, thus all weights in this Report are given as the quantity of U3O8 that contains the same amount of uranium as the UOC in question.


Weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological).

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