Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia


  Annual Report 1998-99




AA Administrative Arrangement. An arrangement made under each of Australia’s bilateral safeguards agreements setting out detailed procedures for the implementation of the agreement.
AAEC Australian Atomic Energy Commission – predecessor of ANSTO
Additional Protocol Published as IAEA document INFCIRC/540, the Additional Protocol is designed for States having a Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguards system.
AGSO Australian Geological Survey Organisation
ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation
AONM Australian Obligated Nuclear Material: nuclear material which is subject to obligations pursuant to one of Australia’s bilateral safeguards agreements. In practice it relates to Australian uranium and material derived from it (e.g. uranium hexafluoride, low enriched uranium, depleted uranium, plutonium).
AOPu Australian Obligated Plutonium (i.e. plutonium which is AONM)
ARPANSA Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency
ASAP Australian Safeguards Assistance Program
Australia Group A group of States that adhere to common guidelines for controls on exports with the aim of preventing the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.
Biocontainment A room or suite of rooms designed to handle biological agents according to their risk groups defined in the WHO biosafety manual. Work undertaken in a laboratory at a specific level should follow procedures prescribed for that level of containment.
BWC Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacterialogical (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction.
BWR Boiling Water Reactor: an LWR in which the moderator/coolant is used directly to produce steam for electricity generation.
C/S Containment and Surveillance
CD Conference on Disarmament
Complementary Access The right of the IAEA pursuant the Additional Protocol to visit a location and carry out verification activities.
Comprehensive safeguards agreement Agreement for the application of safeguards to all of a State’s current and future nuclear activities (equivalent to ‘full scope’ safeguards).
Conversion Processing of natural uranium into a gaseous compound, uranium hexafluoride, for use as the feedstock for uranium enrichment.
CPPNM Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
CTBT Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
CTBTO Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation—Vienna based international organisation established to give effect to the CTBT.
CWC Chemical Weapons Convention
Uranium having a U-235 content less than that found in nature (i.e. as a result of uranium enrichment).
DFAT Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Direct-Use Material Nuclear material defined for safeguards purposes as being useable for nuclear explosives without transmutation or further enrichment, e.g. plutonium, high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U-233.
Discrete organic chemical (DOC) Any chemical belonging to the class of chemical compounds consisting of all compounds of carbon, except for its oxides, sulphides and metal carbonates, identifiable by chemical name, by structural formula, if known, and by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry number, if assigned. Long chain polymers are not included in this definition.
DPRK Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Enrichment A physical or chemical process for increasing the proportion of a particular isotope. Uranium enrichment involves increasing the proportion of U-235 from its level in natural uranium, 0.711%: for LEU fuel the proportion of U-235 (the enrichment level) is typically increased to around 3-5%.
ESARDA European Safeguards Research and Development Association
Euratom The Atomic Energy Agency of the European Union. Its Safeguards Directorate is responsible for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in civil nuclear facilities in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK.
Facility (for CWC purposes) A plant, plant site or production/processing unit. [NB. for legal purposes, the term ‘Facility’, as it appears in provisions of the Chemical Weapons (Prohibition) Act, has the same meaning as ‘plant site’.]
Facility Attachment (for safeguards purposes) A document agreed between the IAEA and the relevant Member State which specifies the nuclear materials accountancy system for a specific facility, and defines the format and scope of inspection activities.
Fast neutron A neutron in the ‘fast’ energy range (>0.1 MeV)
Fast neutron reactor A reactor that operates mainly with neutrons in the fast energy range. Because a moderator is not used, a fuel with a high energy density is required, usually plutonium (more specifically, MOX with a high proportion, e.g. 20-30%, of plutonium) or HEU. Through transmutation of U-238, a fast breeder reactor is designed to produce more plutonium than it consumes. However fast neutron reactors can also be operated as net plutonium consumers.
Fissile Referring to a nuclide capable of undergoing fission by ‘thermal’ neutrons (e.g. U-233, U-235, Pu-239).
Fission The splitting of an atomic nucleus into roughly equal parts, often by a neutron. In a fission reaction, a neutron collides with fissile nuclide (e.g. U-235) and splits, releasing energy and new neutrons. Many of these neutrons may go on to collide with other fissile nuclei, setting up a nuclear chain reaction.
Fissionable Referring to a nuclide capable of undergoing fission by ‘fast’ neutrons (e.g. Pu-240, Pu-242).
FMCT Proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty
Fuel Assembly (fuel element or fuel bundle) A grouping of fuel rods, pins, plates, etc., held together by spacer grids and other structural components, which is maintained intact during fuel transfer and irradiation operations in a reactor.
Full Scope Safeguards The application of IAEA safeguards to all of a State’s present and future nuclear activities.
Graphite A form of carbon, used as a moderator in certain types of nuclear reactor. Graphite is a very efficient moderator, enabling uranium to be used in a fission reactor without enrichment.
GW Gigawatt (Giga = 109)
GWe / GWt Gigawatts of electrical / thermal power
Heavy water (D2O) Water containing the ‘heavy’ hydrogen isotope deuterium (hydrogen 2) which consists of a proton and a neutron. D2O occurs naturally as about one part in 6000 of ordinary water. D2O is a very efficient moderator, enabling uranium to be used in a fission reactor without enrichment.
HEU High enriched uranium. Uranium enriched to 20% or more in U-235. ‘Weapons grade’ HEU has been enriched to over 90% U-235.
HIFAR High Flux Australian Reactor: the 10 MWt research reactor located at ANSTO’s Lucas Heights Research Laboratories.
Hot Cell A shielded work area, with thick lead glass windows and remote manipulation devices, in which radioactive materials can be safely handled and inspected.
Hydroacoustic Term referring to underwater propagation of pressure waves (sounds).
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency. The United Nations organisation administering international safeguards, headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
ICR Inventory Change Report. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.
IDC International Data Centre. Data gathered by monitoring stations of the CTBT IMS network are compiled, analysed and archived by the Vienna based IDC. IDC products giving the results of analyses are made available to CTBT signatories.
IMS International Monitoring System—A network of 337 monitoring stations and analytical laboratories which, together with the IDC, gather and analyse data with the aim of detecting any explosive nuclear testing.
Indirect-Use Material Nuclear material that cannot be used for a nuclear explosive without transmutation or further enrichment, e.g. depleted uranium, natural uranium, low-enriched uranium (LEU), and thorium.
INFCIRC Information Circular. A series of documents published by the IAEA setting out safeguards, physical protection and export control arrangements.
INFCIRC/66 Rev.2 The model safeguards agreement used by the IAEA since 1965. Essentially this agreement is facility-specific. In the case of non-nuclear-weapon States party to the NPT, it has been replaced by INFCIRC/153.


INFCIRC/153 (Corrected)

The model agreement used by the IAEA as a basis for negotiating safeguards agreements with non-nuclear-weapon States party to the NPT.
INFCIRC/225 Rev.4.(Corr) IAEA document entitled ‘The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities’. Its recommendations reflect a consensus of views among IAEA Member States on desirable requirements for physical protection measures on nuclear material, that is, measures taken for its physical security.
Infrasound Sound in the frequency range of 0.02 to 4 Hertz. One category of CTBT IMS stations will monitor sound at these frequencies with the aim of detecting explosive events such as a nuclear test explosion at a range up to 5000 km.
INMM Institute of Nuclear Materials Management
ISD International Security Division, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Isotopes Nuclides with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons, e.g. U-235 (92 protons and 143 neutrons) and U-238 (92 protons and 146 neutrons). The number of neutrons in an atomic nucleus, while not significantly altering its chemistry, does alter its properties in nuclear reactions.
LEU Low Enriched Uranium; uranium enriched to less than 20% in U-235. Commonly LEU for use as LWR fuel is enriched to 3–5% U-235.
LHRL Lucas Heights Research Laboratories
Listed Agents A specific list of microorganisms and toxins proposed in the current draft of the verification protocol to the BWC.
LWR Light Water Reactor. The most common type of power reactor, using ordinary (light) water as the moderator and coolant. Because light water is not an efficient moderator the uranium fuel must be slightly enriched (LEU).
MBA Material Balance Area. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.
MBR Material Balance Report. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.
Microbiological production Production of food, medicine and other chemicals by cultivation of microorganisms or tissue cultures.
Microorganism Dead or alive bacteria, viruses, fungi and single-cell organisms.
Moata ANSTO’s ‘university training reactor’ (Moata means ‘firestick’ in an Aboriginal language). Now defuelled and awaiting decommissioning.
Moderator A material used to slow ‘fast’ neutrons to speeds where they can readily be absorbed by U-235 or plutonium nuclei and initiate a fission reaction. The most commonly used moderator materials are light water, heavy water or graphite.
MOX Mixed oxide reactor fuel, consisting of a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides – for LWR fuel the plutonium content is typically around 5%.
MUF Material Unaccounted For. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy (see Output A).
MW Megawatt (Mega = 106)
MWe / MWt Megawatts of electrical / thermal power
Natural uranium In nature uranium consists predominantly of the isotope U-238 (approx. 99.3%), with the fissile isotope U-235 comprising only 0.711%.
NCG National Consultative Group, established by the Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1998 to provide advice in the context of negotiations on strengthening BWC Verification Protocol.
NDA Non-destructive analysis or assay
NDC National Data Centre, pursuant to the CTBT.
NMAC Nuclear Materials Accountancy and Control
NNWS Non-nuclear-weapon States
NPT Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
NSG Nuclear Suppliers Group: a group comprised of nuclear supplier States that adhere to guidelines set out in the IAEA document INFCIRC/254 for controls on exports of nuclear materials, equipment and technology.
Nuclide Nuclear species characterised by the number of protons (atomic number) and the number of neutrons. The total number of protons and neutrons is called the mass number of the nuclide.
NWS Nuclear-weapon States: Those States recognised by the NPT as having nuclear weapons when the Treaty was concluded, that is, US, UK, Russia, France and China.
OCPF Other Chemical Production Facility: A facility that produces discrete organic chemicals in quantities exceeding thresholds defined in the CWC.
OPCW Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
OSI On-Site Inspection - A short notice ’challenge type inspection’ provided for in the CTBT as a means for investigation concerns about serious non-compliance the testing prohibition.
PASE Probabilistic Assessment of Safeguards Effectiveness
PIL Physical Inventory Listing. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.
Plant For CWC purposes, is defined as a relatively self-contained area, structure or building containing one or more units for the production, processing or consumption of a chemical, along with associated infrastructure.
Plant site For CWC purposes, is defined as the local integration of one or more plants, with any intermediate administrative levels, which are under one operational control, and includes common infrastructure.
Production Production of a chemical for the purposes of the CWC is defined as its formation through chemical reaction. Production of chemicals specified by the CWC is declarable, even if produced as intermediates and irrespective of whether or not they are isolated.
Programmatic Refers to an agreed delineated fuel-cycle program (facilities and activities).
Programme 93+2 The IAEA’s program for the strengthening of safeguards, so-called because it commenced in 1993 and was initially expected to take two years—now subsumed by the Strengthened Safeguards System.
PWR Pressurised water reactor: an LWR in which the moderator/coolant heats a secondary cooling circuit that produces steam for electricity generation.
R&D Research and Development
Reprocessing Processing of spent fuel to separate uranium and plutonium from highly radioactive fission products.
ROK Republic of Korea
S/RD Shipper/Receiver Difference. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.
SAGSI Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation: an advisory group to the Director General of the IAEA.
SNL Sandia National Laboratories, USA
SPNFZ South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty
SSAC State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material: the national safeguards system required of each State under its safeguards agreement with the IAEA.
SSS Strengthened Safeguards System (the IAEA’s safeguards system building on Programme 93+2).
Thermal neutron A neutron in the ‘thermal’ energy range (<0.1 MeV). The thermal energy range is optimal for causing fission reactions through neutron capture.
Thermal reactor A reactor in which neutrons are slowed to ‘thermal’ speeds by use of a moderator.
Toxin Compound originating from microorganisms animals or plants irrespective of the method of production whether natural or modified that can death, disease or ill health to humans, animals or plants.
TW Terawatt (tera = 1012)
TWh Terawatt hours
U-233 Isotope 233 of uranium, produced through neutron irradiation of thorium-232.
U-235 Isotope 235 of uranium (occurs as 0.711% of natural uranium), comprising 92 protons and 143 neutrons.
U-238 Isotope 238 of uranium (occurs as about 99.3% of natural uranium), comprising 92 protons and 146 neutrons.
UF6 Uranium hexafluoride, a gaseous compound of uranium and fluorine used as the feedstock for most enrichment processes.
UOC Uranium Ore Concentrates (i.e. yellowcake)
USDOE United States Department of Energy
WMD Weapons of mass destruction

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