Australia and the European Union (EU) enjoy a constructive and substantial bilateral relationship built on a shared commitment to freedom and democratic values and a like-minded approach to a broad range of international issues. In support of these shared commitments Australia and the EU work together to support global efforts to combat terrorism and the proliferation of nuclear and conventional weapons, to coordinate our efforts to respond to the challenges of climate change and the global financial crisis and to promote peace, sustainable development, good governance and human rights.
The 28 members of the EU as a bloc constitute one of Australia's largest trading and investment partners. Australia and the EU cooperate increasingly closely in the Asia-Pacific region, including to enhance security, stability and good governance, and to improve the coordination of development cooperation assistance among donors to the region. The EU is a significant provider of aid to the Pacific and South East Asia. Australia has a number of formal bilateral agreements with the EU and its institutions. Some of the key recent agreements are described in this brief.
For information on Australia's bilateral relations with the individual member states of the EU, select the appropriate country:
Key EU institutions
The main institutions of the EU are the European Council, the Council of Ministers, the Commission and the European Parliament.
The European Council, the highest authority, is composed of the Heads of State and Government of the Member States. It does not legislate but defines the general political direction and priorities of the EU, and to that end provides guidelines to the Council of Ministers and the Commission (whose President is also a Member of the European Council). The Lisbon Treaty on EU reform, which entered into force on 1 December 2009, created the new position of permanent President of the European Council, appointed for a two-and-a-half-year term renewable once. The President of the European Council chairs its meetings, is the face of the EU internationally and holds discussions on its behalf with heads of state and government of third states. On 19 November 2009 the EU Heads of State and Government appointed Mr Herman Van Rompuy, then Prime Minister of Belgium, as the first permanent President of the European Council.
The Council of Ministers is the EU's pre-eminent decision-making body. It has both executive and legislative powers, and acts within guidelines provided by the European Council of heads of state and government. It meets in 10 subject-based configurations, including Economic and Financial Affairs (ECOFIN), Competitiveness (including internal market and industry) and Transport and Social Affairs. All formations, except Foreign Affairs, are chaired by the Minister from the country that holds the Presidency of the Council, which rotates every six months.
The European Commission (EC), comprising one Commissioner from each member state and led by a President, has the sole right of initiative to propose laws (called directives) at EU level, which — when approved by the Council and the Parliament — Member States are obliged to include in their national legislation. The Commission is also the Union's executive body and public service. The current President of the European Commission, Mr José Manuel Barroso, was confirmed for a second five year term by a vote of the European Parliament on 16 September 2009.
The European Parliament (EP) is the only directly elected EU institution. It shares decision-making power with the Council on most internal market policies and has budget approval powers. The Parliament has the right to approve or reject the nomination of Commissioners. With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the Parliament gained an expanded role in a number of new areas including trade, agriculture and justice and home affairs.
Prior to the Lisbon Treaty, the Council and the Commission shared responsibility for managing the EU's external relations through a High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, based in the Council, and a European Commissioner for External Relations and Neighbourhood Policy. The Lisbon Treaty effectively combined these functions in a single, new High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who is also a Vice-President of the European Commission. The first person to hold this position is former European Commissioner for Trade, Baroness Catherine Ashton of the UK. The High Representative chairs the Foreign Affairs Council and exercises authority over a new EU foreign service — the European External Action Service.
The European External Action Service (EEAS) assists the High Representative to ensure the consistency and coordination of the Union's external action. It prepares policy proposals and implements them after they have been approved by the Council. It comprises officials from the Council Secretariat and the Commission as well as staff seconded from the Member States' national diplomatic services. With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, existing European Commission Delegations were renamed European Union Delegations, and form part of the structure of the EEAS.
Mr Karel De Gucht, former Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade and European Commissioner for Aid and Humanitarian Development, is now EU Commissioner for Trade.
Operating as a single market with 28 member states, the EU is the world’s largest trading bloc. The EU ‘internal’ or single market commenced on 1 January 1993 to facilitate the free movement of goods, capital, services and people within the EU. The internal market was intended to drive economic integration amongst member states to become a single EU wide economy. The EU’s combined GDP in 2012 was USD 16,6 trillion (AUD 17,5 trillion) and it includes four of the world’s 10 largest economies (Germany, France, the UK and Italy). Two-thirds of EU trade is done internally - with other EU member states.
EU economies operate within a system of ‘competences’ or responsibilities for policy areas. The EU has exclusive responsibility for the EU customs union, trade and investment policy and competition rules. Because of the great differences in per capita income among member states and in national attitudes toward inflation, debt, and foreign trade, the EU faces challenges in devising and enforcing common economic policies.
Following the 2008-09 global economic crisis, the EU experienced moderate GDP growth in 2010 and 2011, but the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis intensified in 2011 and became the EU's top priority. Despite EU/International Monetary Fund (IMF) adjustment programs in Greece, Ireland, and Portugal, and consolidation measures in other EU states, significant risks to growth remain.
Despite the Eurozone crisis, the EU remains the world’s largest economic power accounting for one sixth of the world’s trade in goods. The Eurozone’s sovereign debt crisis stabilised in 2012 following European Central Bank President Mario Draghi’s announcement of the Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT) program, which offers troubled member states conditional, but unlimited support in bond markets. Furthermore, Germany supported the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), a permanent firewall to safeguard and provide access to financial assistance programs for EU member states in financial difficulty.
The Eurozone has tentatively returned to growth in 2013. GDP rose by 0.3% in the second quarter of 2013 breaking six consecutive quarters of contraction, which exceeded market expectations of 0.2%. However, overall growth figures mask wide differences in each state’s economic performance. The French economy expanded 0.5% to exit its shallow recession, while the Portuguese economy expanded 1.1% on higher exports and investment. Germany and Finland’s economies expanded by 0.7% closely followed by the UK with 0.6%. Spain’s economy contracted by 0.1% and Italy’s by 0.2%.
Unemployment remains high in the EU with the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate at 12.1% in July 2013. Among the member states, the lowest unemployment rates for July 2013 were in Austria (4.8%), Germany (5.3%) and Luxemburg (3.7%) and the highest rates were in Greece (27.6% (May 2012)) and Spain (26.3%).
The Australia-EU Partnership Framework currently sets out the future direction of bilateral cooperation. The framework was launched during Australia-EU Ministerial Consultations in Paris on 29 October 2008. It is a document which outlines specific cooperative activities and is designed to be revised regularly. The first revision of the Partnership Framework, launched during the Australia-EU Ministerial Consultations in Stockholm on 8 October 2009, provides an updated focus on practical cooperation in the following areas:
- shared foreign policy and global security interests
- the multilateral rules-based trading system and the bilateral trade and investment relationship
- the Asia-Pacific region
- energy issues, climate change and fisheries and forestry
- science, research, technology and innovation, education and culture and facilitating the movement of people.
The original framework replaced the June 1997 Australia-European Union Joint Declaration on Relations [PDF] and the subsequent 2003-08 Agenda for Cooperation [PDF 120 KB]. During her visit to Brussels in October 2010 (see below), then Prime Minister Julia Gillard proposed a treaty-level bilateral Framework Agreement between Australia and the EU. Formal negotiations on the Framework Agreement opened in Canberra on 31 October 2011 and are continuing. In 2012 Australia and the EU celebrated 50 years of formal diplomatic relations. Sir Edwin McCarthy, Australian public servant, trade negotiator and diplomat, took up his position as the first Australian Ambassador to the European Economic Community in March 1962.
Recent Ministerial and Head of State visits
During her October 2010 visit, Ms Gillard met with European Commission President José Manuel Barroso and European Council President Herman Van Rompuy in Brussels. Their discussions reinforced the joint commitment made in April 2008 by then Prime Minister Rudd (during his first term in office) and President Barroso to a new, invigorated bilateral relationship between Australia and the EU. Ms Gillard discussed with EU counterparts a proposal for a treaty-level Framework Agreement (see above) to underpin the very comprehensive and strong relationship between Australia and the EU. While in Brussels Ms Gillard also met with a number of European Heads of State and represented Australia at the 8th Leaders' Summit of the Asia-Europe Meeting – another avenue by which Australia is strengthening its relations with the EU.
President José Manuel Barroso reciprocated this with bilateral talks in Australia on 4-7 September 2011. The first by a European Commission President since Gaston Thorn's in 1982, this visit was a statement of strengthening Australia-EU ties. The joint statement by then Prime Minister Gillard and President Barroso showcased the breadth of issues covered in the bilateral relationship. The President's visit also included a Key Note Address at the Finkle Lecture Theatre, ANU, and a European Australian Business Council Oration.
The Australian Foreign Minister holds regular consultations with EU counterparts. Former Foreign Minister Senator Bob Carr visited Brussels in April 2012 where he held discussions with the EU’s High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice President of the European Commission, Baroness Catherine Ashton. In April 2013 Senator Carr visited Brussels for talks with Commissioner for Development, Andris Piebalgs, and Commissioner for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response, Kristiana Georgieva. He also addressed the Foreign Affairs Committee of the European Parliament – the first Australian Foreign Minister to do so.
In October 2011 Catherine Ashton visited Canberra as a Guest of Government for Australia-EU Ministerial Consultations. In a joint media statement then Foreign Minister Rudd and HR Ashton announced: the launch of negotiations on a treaty-level Australia-EU Framework Agreement and a Crisis Management Agreement as well as cooperation on delegated aid projects in South Sudan and Fiji (see Development cooporation).
European Commissioner for Trade Karel De Gucht visited Australia 15-17 March 2012 to hold talks with the then Minister for Trade, Dr Craig Emerson. The EU Commissioner for Development, Andris Piebalgs also visited Australia on 7 March 2011 where he held talks with Mr Richard Marles, then Parliamentary Secretary for Pacific Island Affairs. The EU Commissioner for Climate Action, Connie Hedegaard, visited Australia in September 2011 and held talks on climate change and energy efficiency.
The Governor-General, Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce, led a delegation of members of the Europe-Australia Business Council to Europe in June 2013. In Brussels she met with European Commission President José Manuel Barroso and European Council President Herman Van Rompuy.
The Australian Parliament has maintained contact with the European Parliament for many years. The European Parliament is an important conduit for advocacy of Australia's interests and has an Inter-parliamentary Delegation for Relations with Australia and New Zealand. Reciprocal visits by parliamentary delegations are held each year. The most recent visit to Australia by a delegation from the European Parliament was in February 2013 and the Secretary-General of the European Parliament, Klaus Welle visited Australia in May 2011. An Australian Parliamentary delegation last visited the European Parliament in April 2012.
Australian and EU representatives also regularly meet for discussions and consultations at Ministerial and officials level in the margins of international conferences, in addition to regular officials level bilateral forums covering specific policy issues, such as the Trade Policy Dialogue, the Agricultural Trade and Marketing Experts' Group (ATMEG) talks and talks on the Asia-Pacific.
The EU has been represented in Australia since 1981 by a Delegation of the European Commission, now a Delegation of the European Union. The Delegation's role is to represent the EU; to further develop bilateral relations in the political, economic, commercial, environment, social and cultural fields, including new opportunities for cooperation; to inform the EU on political, economic, trade and development matters in both Australia and New Zealand; to promote and protect the EU's interests and values and to spread knowledge and to raise awareness of the EU in Australia and New Zealand. The Delegation is not responsible for trade promotion or consular matters, which are handled by the embassies, consulates, trade commissioners or national tourism offices of EU member states.
Community presence in Australia
People-to-people links between Australia and Europe are deep and longstanding. Australia's cultural identity draws heavily on our predominantly European heritage. Nearly 70 per cent of Australians have European ancestry. Almost 30,000 new European migrants arrive annually and over 1.3 million Europeans visit Australia and 1 million Australians travel to Europe each year. The great sacrifices made by Australians during two world wars in Europe are an integral part of our national history and identity and represent a strong Australian contribution to Europe's evolution over the past century.
Key areas of cooperation
Australia and the EU cooperate to address challenges to global peace and prosperity, including terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and failing states.
In our region, the EU makes an important contribution to promoting development and security outcomes for East Timor and for the countries of the Pacific region (see also Development Cooperation below). The EU provides support for the Jakarta Centre for Law Enforcement Cooperation (JCLEC), a joint Australian - Indonesian initiative to enhance the expertise of South-East Asian law enforcement agencies in combating terrorism and transnational crime, and for the Bali process on enhancing regional cooperation on people smuggling, trafficking in persons and related transnational crime. Australia has welcomed the EU's constructive role in Aceh where, along with five ASEAN countries, the EU deployed a Monitoring Mission (AMM) for the implementation of the peace agreement signed between Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement in August 2005 in Helsinki, Finland.
During President Barroso's visit in September 2011, Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) signed an agreement designed to deepen our cooperation in the areas of nuclear safeguards, security and safety.
The EU is an important partner for Australia in development cooperation activities in the Pacific and is a significant donor in the region. Under the tenth European Development Fund, for the period 2007-2013, the EU has provided the Pacific with approximately €500 million (around $800 million). The EU's Pacific policies are set out in its Pacific Communication, adopted in May 2006. The Communication outlines the EU's commitment to strengthening political relations with Pacific countries; bringing greater focus and coordination to its development activities, including through more emphasis on regional cooperation; and improving the effectiveness of aid delivery, including through closer coordination with other partners, in particular Australia and New Zealand.
In September 2011, President Barroso and then Prime Minister Gillard agreed that Australia and the EU would enter into delegated cooperation arrangements for aid delivery. Delegated cooperation is a practice by which one development agency delivers an aid program on behalf of a partner agency. The first two Australia-EU delegated aid projects will be in South Sudan – where Australia will fund an EU food security initiative - and in Fiji, where EU funding will support an employment training program.
The European Investment Bank (EIB) - which provides development loans to African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries - opened its Pacific regional headquarters in Sydney in December 2007. The presence of the EIB office contributes to donor coordination between Australia, the EU and developing country partners and improves overall aid effectiveness in the Pacific region.
Australia and the EU are also both major contributors to Indonesia’s Education Sector Support Program (ESSP) (2011-12 to 2015-16) which supports Indonesia to achieve universal basic education.
Climate change, environment and energy
Australia and the EU hold high-level consultations to strengthen cooperation in advancing environmental protection, both through policy dialogue and by facilitating joint projects to address specific environment-related issues. Australia and the EU regularly exchange views on energy security and climate change and explore complementary approaches to addressing these issues. Australia and the EU share a common concern about the importance of mitigating and adapting to climate change.
Australia has participated in the EU-initiated International Carbon Action Partnership (ICAP) since April 2008. In 19 May 2009 in Melbourne, then EU Energy Commissioner, Mr Andris Piebalgs, signed an MOU making the EC a founding member of the Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute. As a permanent coordinator of the Umbrella Group (a grouping of the non-EU developed countries), Australia continues to closely engage the EU on climate change matters.
Science and research
In 1994, Australia became the first non-EU member country to sign a Science and Technology Agreement with the EU. Since then cooperation has been active and steadily increasing in a diverse range of research areas. Australian researchers are able to join their European counterparts as full participants in research programs which are managed by the European Commission under the EU's Framework Program for Research and Technological Development. The Agreement also encourages European participation in Australian research activities. A Joint Science and Technology Co-operation Committee (JSTCC) meets every one to two years to exchange information and discuss ways to enhance research collaboration and agree on priorities and actions to strengthen the relationship. In October 2012, the 12th JSTCC meeting was held in Brussels.
Australia and the EU jointly fund the Connecting Australian European Science and Innovation Excellence (CAESIE) bilateral partnership initiative, which aims to establish science and technology collaboration and partnership between small to medium enterprises (SMEs) and researchers in Europe and Australia.
In addition, the Australian Government supports research cooperation with the EU through the joint National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) - European Union Collaborative Research Grants program.
In 2008 the Australian Research Council opened its fellowships to international candidates for all schemes, providing funding for eligible organisations to promote collaboration, movement and networking between Australia-based and overseas researchers. This has resulted in several successful research projects between Australian and EU researchers and enhanced the opportunity for them to strengthen their networks internationally.
Australia's participation in the EU Framework Program is also underpinned and reinforced by its strong bilateral research cooperation links with a number of individual EU Member States.
Education and training
Australia's tertiary education relationship with the EU is active and wide-ranging with activities including policy interaction and supporting student mobility.
Policy dialogues seek to address strategic issues related to the state of education systems and policies pursued in the EU and Australia. Dialogues aim to reinforce bilateral and multilateral cooperation at both the administrative and policy level and provide enhanced understanding of education and training policies and developments in the EU and Australia.
The EU and Australia have undertaken dialogues in the following areas:
- University reform and the modernisation agenda (2009)
- Qualifications frameworks (2010)
- Early childhood education (2011)
- International Education (2012)
- Rethinking Education: challenges and opportunities (2013)
Since 2003 Australia and the EU have jointly funded eight rounds of bilateral joint cooperation projects known as Encounter: Australia-Europe. Encounter is part of the EU’s Industrialised Countries Instrument Education Cooperation Programme (ICI ECP). The EU undertakes these bilateral projects with a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region: Australia, Japan, New Zealand and South Korea.
To date, Encounter has seen 22 higher education and vocational education and training (VET) projects funded. At the completion of the eighth round, over 1400 Australian and European students will have studied overseas in either the EU or Australia as part of these projects. Encounter mobility projects and joint degrees aim to develop innovative curricula, joint credit transfer arrangements, support academic cooperation and encourage student mobility in a variety of disciplines.
Bilateral economic and trade relationship
Australia and the EU have a convergence of views on many global economic issues and work together in the G20 context to meet the current challenges facing the international economy, including the sovereign debt crisis in the euro area, and to promote global economic recovery and growth.
The 28 members of the EU as a bloc constitute one of Australia's largest trading and investment partners. Total two-way trade with the EU was valued at A$81.6 billion in 2012; an increase of 0.1% on 2011, representing 13.2% of Australia's total trade (trade figures exclude imports of aircraft since September 2008 and services trade for Croatia).
Australian merchandise exports to the EU were worth A$17.1 billion in 2012, a 13.0% decrease over 2011. Australia's major merchandise exports to the EU include gold, coal, oils seeds, wine and zinc ores and concentrates. Australia's merchandise imports from the EU in 2012 totalled A$42.7 billion, up 5.5% on 2011. Australia's merchandise imports from the EU were dominated by manufactured goods, with the top categories of imports including medicines, passenger motor vehicles, civil engineering equipment and parts and goods vehicles. The EU is one of Australia's largest two-way services trading partners, with two-way services trade in 2012 valued at A$21.9 billion (EU27). Australia's services exports to the EU were worth A$8.4 billion in 2012, an increase of 2.1% compared to 2011. Australia's services imports from the EU rose by 1.6% in 2012 to A$13.5 billion. Recreational travel services was the largest single services export to, and import from, the EU in 2012. Australia and the EU are like-minded on most issues in services trade and recognise the increasing contribution to exports made by this sector.Australia and the EU enjoy a broad-based trade relationship and on many international trade issues Australia and the EU are like-minded. Market access to the EU market is generally open, although Australia continues to encourage the EU to improve market access in the important area of agriculture. Both Australia and the EU are disappointed by the current impasse in WTO Doha negotiations and share an ambition to overcome the current challenges to achieve a successful outcome. Australia and the EU work together, including through the G20, to promote international prosperity and see trade as an important element. Providing clear multilateral rules, enhancing global trade by measures such as the abolition of export subsidies in agriculture and putting in place mechanisms which limit the ability of countries to resort to the retrograde step of protectionism will make a strong contribution to economic recovery and growth, including increased employment. The trend towards a more market-friendly EU agriculture policy presents opportunities for more constructive bilateral engagement, as is reflected in the brochure on agricultural reform [PDF] which DFAT has produced for distribution in Europe.
The 28 members of the EU as a bloc constitute Australia's largest foreign investor. At the end of 2012, EU27 foreign direct investment in Australia totalled A$156 billion – approximately 28.3% of Australia's total inwards foreign direct investment. The UK dominates EU foreign direct investment in Australia (accounting for 51.1% of the EU total). The Netherlands (20.7%) and Germany (8.8%) are also significant investors. The EU accounted for A$80 billion of outwards Australian direct investment as at 31 December 2012. Our largest direct investments in Europe were in the United Kingdom (70.5% of Australian direct investment in the EU) and the Netherlands (7.6%).
Though the EU is already one of Australia's largest trade and investment partners there are opportunities to expand the trade and investment relationship, particularly in continental Europe. With its abundant natural resources, Australia is well placed to be a reliable and efficient supplier of energy and resources to Europe for many years to come. Europe is a major market for Australian wine and for medicines. The EU services market, particularly in the education and tourism sectors, is an important market for Australian service providers. Product niches are being found in the food and beverage industries. For any questions regarding market access and trading with the EU, see the Austrade country profiles for the various member states.