Lithuania is the largest of the three Baltic States, covering an area of 65,300 square kilometres. It has a population of 2.9 million people (10 November 2014). The capital of Lithuania is Vilnius. Lithuania celebrates its national day on 16 February (Independence Day).
Lithuania declared its independence from the Soviet Union in 1990. Lithuania adopted its constitution in 1992 and is a stable, democratic state. It has a unicameral parliament (the Seimas) with 141 members elected for four years, and a presidential head of state elected directly for a five-year term.
On 17 May 2009, former European Union Budget Commissioner, Dalia Grybauskaite, was elected Lithuania's first female President. In May 2014, Grybauskaite was re-elected as President, with 59 per cent of the vote.
Executive power is vested in the Government of Lithuania, headed by a Prime Minister appointed by the President and approved by the Seimas.
Following mid-October elections, in December 2012, the Lithuanian Parliament approved a new centre-left Government led by Prime Minister Algirdas Butkevicius of the Social Democrat Party. The new Government is backed by a comfortable majority of 85 out of 141 seats in the Seimas.
Lithuania acceded as one of ten new members of the EU in 2004. In a referendum in May 2003, 91 per cent of Lithuanian voters supported EU accession. Lithuania became a full member of the EU on 1 May 2004.
Lithuania was invited to join NATO in November 2002, in NATO's single largest enlargement. Lithuania became a full member of the organisation on 2 April 2004. Lithuania joined the World Bank in 1992 and became a member of the World Trade Organisation on 31 May 2001. Lithuania chaired the Community of Democracies process until 2011, and in 2012 chaired the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Lithuania is a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2014-15.
Lithuania's GDP contracted 14.8 per cent in 2009 following the global financial crisis, but recovered with 1.6 per cent growth in 2010 and 6.0 per cent in 2011. GDP growth in 2013 was 3.3 per cent. Goods and services exports were estimated to account for 83.6 percent and 82.5 per cent of GDP in 2012 and 2013 respectively. Unemployment was estimated at 26.4 per cent in 2013.
According to official Lithuanian government sources, foreign direct investment (FDI) has grown relatively consistently over the past decade. Lithuania's accession to the EU in 2002 is likely to have contributed to the growth in FDI, according to the OECD. In May 2006, Lithuania's application to join the euro zone was rejected after narrowly missing an inflation target set by the European Commission. Lithuania is scheduled to join the euro zone on 1 January 2015.
Australia recognised Lithuanian independence in August 1991.
According to the 2011 census, there are approximately 13,500 people in Australia who identify themselves as being of Lithuanian descent. The Lithuanian community in Australia has made an important contribution to strengthening bilateral ties, including through culture, academia and the arts.
There have been several high-level visits since Lithuania's independence. Minister for Foreign Affairs the Hon Kevin Rudd MP visited Vilnius in December 2011 to attend the OSCE Ministerial Meeting. Minister for Foreign Affairs the Hon Gareth Evans visited Lithuania in 1994 and also in 1999, and an Australian parliamentary delegation, led by the Speaker, the Hon Stephen Martin MP, visited in 1994. The Speaker of the NSW Parliament, the Hon John Murray, visited Lithuania in September-October 2002. Lithuania's President Valdas Adamkus, and his wife, Mrs Alma Adamkiene, visited Australia from 24–27 February 2006. The President also visited Australia for the Sydney Olympics in September 2000. A Lithuanian parliamentary delegation visited Australia in March 2008.
The relationship between Australia and Lithuania is underpinned by agreements covering Trade and Economic Cooperation (1993) and Investment Promotion and Protection (2002).
The Australian Ambassador in Warsaw is accredited to Lithuania. Australia has an Honorary Consul in Vilnius. Lithuania has Consulates-General in Sydney and Melbourne, headed by Honorary Consuls-General. Since October 2008, the Lithuanian Ambassador in Tokyo has been accredited to Australia.
Bilateral economic and trade relationship
Two-way merchandise trade between Australia and Lithuania in 2013 was A$55.1 million. Exports to Lithuania in 2013 totalled A$6.1 million, mainly in wool. Imports from Lithuania in 2013 amounted to A$49.0 million, mainly comprising fertilizers, rubber tyres, wood and furniture. Lithuania ranks as Australia's 91st largest trading partner.
Last updated: November 2014