The Indian Ocean island nation of Madagascar possesses a rich and unique biodiversity. Partly due to its isolation, most of Madagascar's mammals, half of its birds, and most of its plants cannot be found anywhere else in the world.  Madagascar's economy depends on agriculture, including fishing and forestry, with a growing mining sector, particularly ilmenite and gemstones. Several projects are also underway in the oil and gas sectors.

The population of Madagascar is approximately 25 million (2016). The official languages are Malagasy and French.  After a period of political upheaval following the 2009 coup, democratic elections took place in 2013. Madagascar is a member of the Southern African Development Community, the Indian Ocean Commission and the Indian Ocean Rim Association. In June 2016, Madagascar accepted the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation.

Australia's diplomatic representation to Madagascar is from the High Commission in Port Louis, Mauritius. Madagascar is represented by an Honorary Consul-General based in Sydney.

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Last Updated: 8 July 2016