After decades of violent internal struggle, the people of southern Sudan voted for independence in a referendum in January 2011. The referendum was the culmination of a six-year peace process which began with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005. The Republic of South Sudan became independent from Sudan on 9 July 2011. The UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) was established in June 2011 to monitor and demilitarise the disputed border region of Abyei, between Sudan and South Sudan, as well as to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid.
In December 2013, violence erupted between pro-government forces, supporting President Salva Kiir and anti-government rebel factions led by his former Vice President, Riek Machar, killing thousands. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) – with the support of the African Union, the United Nations and the international community – continues to mediate peace talks between the opposing parties, but the Cessation of Hostilities agreement signed on 24 January 2014 has been violated repeatedly by forces loyal to both sides.
The humanitarian situation in South Sudan is dire, with over one million people internally displaced and many thousands of people seeking refuge in neighbouring countries (Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan). Almost 100,000 people have sought shelter in UN bases around the country. The UN estimates millions are facing food insecurity and are in need of humanitarian assistance. Australia worked as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council to mitigate the humanitarian crisis in South Sudan and to manage the instability into the longer term. This included supporting a revised mandate for the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), prioritising protection of civilians, humanitarian assistance and human rights monitoring.
Australia has contributed $18.4 million in humanitarian assistance since the outbreak of conflict in December 2013, along with RAAF airlift support to transport UN supplies into South Sudan. Australia has a contingent of Australian Defence Force personnel in South Sudan who have been deployed with UNMISS since its inception in 2011.
South Sudan has significant potential oil wealth, with large oil fields in its Upper Nile and Unity states. South Sudan is dependent on oil pipelines flowing through Sudan to export the oil to international markets.
Australia and South Sudan have strong people-to-people links, including a large South Sudanese diaspora resident in Australia.
Australia’s diplomatic representation to South Sudan is from the High Commission in Nairobi, Kenya.
Foreign Minister media releaes:
Australian Defence Force deployment to South Sudan:
- Travel advice for South Sudan
- Before you travel:
- Assistance to Australian travellers: Consular Services Charter
Embassies and consulates
- The Australian High Commission in Kenya is responsible for South Sudan