The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) is 1,650 kilometres long and from 50 kilometres at its narrowest point to 600 kilometres wide. It borders China, Laos, Cambodia, the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea. Its 90 million people constitute the world's 13th largest population (third largest in ASEAN) inhabiting the 66th largest country—an area about one third that of New South Wales. Population density in parts of Hanoi is among the world's highest at around 35,000 per square kilometre, but there are also sparsely populated remote areas, where remaining poverty (The World Bank estimates that in 2014, 13.5 per cent of the population lie below the national poverty line) is concentrated, principally among the 53 minority ethnic groups. The 54th and majority ethnic group (Kinh) accounts for 85 per cent of the total population. The population is young (63 per cent under 35, median age 27) and adult literacy is around 94 per cent, but the quality of work-related skills and education is low.
Vietnam is now a middle-income country (GDP per capita USD2,170 in 2015) and its wealth is the second most evenly distributed in ASEAN after Indonesia. It is the world's 37th largest economy (PPP), in transition from agrarian to industrialised and from centrally planned to market-based. Vietnam has been cited as having the fastest growing middle class in the Southeast Asian region and this is expected to rise from 12 million in 2012 to 33 million in 2020 (Boston Consulting Group Survey 2012). Agriculture still accounts for some 70 per cent of employment, but contributes only 17 per cent of GDP, despite Vietnam being a global agricultural player in several commodities. The remainder of the economy is 40 per cent manufacturing, construction and industry, and the balance of 43 per cent services.
Vietnam is one of the world's few remaining one-party communist states. The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) Central Committee—in which political power is formally vested—comprises 175 full and 25 alternate members elected at the Party Congress, held every five years. The Twelfth Party Congress was held in January 2016. The Central Committee meets twice a year and acts as the CPV's supreme decision-making organ. The Central Committee in turn elects a Politburo (currently 19 members), which runs Party affairs between Central Committee meetings and is Vietnam's most powerful political body in practice. The three most powerful political positions are the General Secretary of the CPV, currently Dr Nguyen Phu Trong, Prime Minister, currently Mr Nguyen Tan Dung, who heads the government and the President, currently Mr Truong Tan Sang, who is Head of State.
The Government is accountable to the National Assembly. In recent years, the National Assembly has become increasingly active and influential in setting national priorities, with members prepared to criticise the Government vigorously. Administration and policy implementation is the responsibility of government ministries and equivalent agencies, although these organisations are now also playing a more significant role in policy development.
The increasing role of the National Assembly in reviewing legislation and policies and a gradually more incisive media have contributed to greater transparency in Vietnam, but there are limits to dissent. Individuals can incur long prison terms on broadly framed charges, such as espionage or undermining national security and propagandising against the state. Notwithstanding some recent responsiveness on the part of the Vietnamese authorities on questions of religious freedom, several high-profile arrests and trials over recent years have brought the international spotlight back onto Vietnam's one-party political system and management of diverse political views.
Resolution No.13 by the Politburo issued in May 1988 aimed to have ‘more friends and fewer enemies’. Since that time, Vietnam has pursued an explicit policy of comprehensive international integration and takes an active role in international affairs, highlighted by its joining the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1995, hosting of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leaders’ meeting in 2006, accession to the World Trade Organization in 2007, its non-permanent membership of the UN Security Council in 2008-09 and chairing of ASEAN in 2010. Vietnam is currently serving on the Human Rights Council (2014-16) and is campaigning for a seat on the UN Security Council (2020-21) and the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) for the 2016-2018 period. It was also elected as the chairman of the Board of Governors of the Vienna-based International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the 2013-14 term, and elected to the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for the 2014-2017 tenure. In 2017 Vietnam will be the host economy of APEC.
Vietnam works to create favourable international conditions to provide for accelerated socio-economic development, national industrialisation and modernisation of Vietnam. Vietnam aims to develop relations with countries and international organizations under the principles of respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-interference in each other's international affairs; non-use or threat of force; settlement of disagreements and disputes by means of peaceful negotiations; mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit. As a claimant in the South China Sea territorial dispute, Vietnam aims to settle the dispute through negotiation and peaceful means, in accordance with international law and the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) and working for the early formulation of a Code of Conduct for the South China Sea (COC).
Australia and Vietnam marked the 40th anniversary of diplomatic relations on 26 February 2013. Our countries now enjoy a mutually beneficial partnership across a wide spectrum of political, security, economic and people to people activities. On 18 March 2015, in the presence of then Prime Minister Tony Abbott and Vietnam’s Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung, Foreign Minister Julie Bishop and Vietnam’s Minister of the Office of the Government, Nguyen Van Nen signed a Declaration on Enhancing the Australia-Viet Nam Comprehensive Partnership. The Declaration sets out a high-level strategic agenda to guide the relationship in coming years and covers regional and international cooperation, trade and investment, industrial, development, development assistance defence, law enforcement and security. The Declaration builds upon the Australia – Viet Nam Comprehensive Partnership signed in 2009 and the bilateral Plan of Action (2010-13). A new Plan of Action, which will outline the practical steps towards the new and refocused priority areas of bilateral cooperation, will be signed in 2016.
People to people links
In the 2011 Census, 221,114 people in Australia claimed Vietnamese ancestry. The first major wave of Vietnamese migration to Australia started in the mid-1970s, with the arrival of large numbers of refugees following the end of the Vietnam War. In more recent years the vast majority of Vietnamese migrants have come to Australia through the Family Stream migration program (family stream migrants are selected on the basis of their family relationship with their sponsor in Australia under four main categories—partner, child, parent and other family visa categories), although there are growing numbers of skilled migrants. Today Australians born in Vietnam represent the fifth largest migrant community in Australia. Australia is the second most common destination for Vietnamese migrants, after the United States of America. The environment in Vietnam since the advent of the doi moi (renovation) reforms has encouraged many Vietnamese expatriates to revisit their former homeland.
Defence, police relations and regional security
Formal defence relations between Australia and Vietnam were established in February 1998, with the opening of a Defence Attaché Office at the Australian Embassy in Hanoi occurring in 1999. Vietnam's first Defence Attaché to Australia took up his appointment in Canberra in September 2000.
The bilateral defence relationship includes: regular Australian Defence Force ship visits to Vietnamese ports; training of Vietnamese military officers in Australia under the bilateral Defence Cooperation Program; and visits between Australian and Vietnamese senior Defence Force officials. In October 2010, Australia and Vietnam signed a bilateral MOU on Defence Cooperation at the inaugural ASEAN Defence Ministers' Meeting- Plus held in Hanoi. During his visit to Vietnam in August 2012, former Australian Minister for Defence, Stephen Smith and Vietnamese Minister of National Defense, General Phung Quang Thanh, agreed Vietnam and Australia should take further practical steps to enhance the defence relationship and to progress a range of bilateral defence initiatives, including the establishment of an Annual Defence Ministers' Dialogue. The inaugural Australia-Vietnam Defence Ministers' Meeting was held in Canberra on 19 March 2013.
Australia and Vietnam have also held a senior officials-level bilateral Regional Security Dialogue since 1998. Since 2012, an annual joint Foreign Affairs/Defence Australia-Vietnam Strategic Dialogue has been held at Deputy-Secretary/Vice-Minister level. Australia and Vietnam also conduct annual Australia-Vietnam Defence Cooperation Senior Officials' talks.
The Australian Federal Police maintains Law Enforcement Liaison Offices in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.
Australia’s commitment to development cooperation with Vietnam is ongoing. The Australian Government will provide an estimated $89.9 million in total official development assistance to Vietnam in 2015-16 and will include an estimated $58.4 million in bilateral funding to Vietnam managed by DFAT. Australia will continue to support Vietnam’s economic reforms by improving market institutions and essential infrastructure, such as the Cao Lanh Bridge. The Australia Awards Scholarships program will also be a vehicle to promote Vietnam’s development with an increased focus on enhancing the economic participation of women, pelple with a disability and ethnic minorities.
The Australian Volunteers for International Development (AVID) program promotes economic growth and poverty reduction in the Indo-Pacific region by assisting host organisations to deliver effective and sustainable development outcomes.
More information on development assistance to Vietnam.
Education and training
Australia is a leading study destination for Vietnamese students. In 2015, there were almost 30,000 enrolments of Vietnamese students in education institutions, making them the third largest group of overseas students after China and India.
Australia collaborates on many education and training initiatives with Vietnam, including in quality assurance, qualification recognition and vocational education; facilitating institution-to-institution partnerships; and supporting vibrant Australian alumni associations.
The Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Education and Training with the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET), first signed in 1994, was renewed in October 2013 as part of the enhanced education cooperation under the Australia–Vietnam Plan of Action 2010-2013. Under the auspices of the MoU, the Joint Working Group on Education and Training has met three times, most recently in Canberra in April 2014.
New Colombo Plan
Under the New Colombo Plan, the Australian Government encourages Australian undergraduates to undertake an overseas study experience and to immerse themselves in the social and academic cultures of other countries. The New Colombo Plan aims to expand the opportunities for Australian students to study abroad by encouraging closer ties with partner institutions overseas. Students can undertake a range of activities as part of their degree or course, including internships, clinical placements, volunteer and research projects as well as traditional semester-based study. Further information is available at the New Colombo Plan website.
Australia's approach to human rights in Vietnam
Australia and Vietnam have held formal human rights talks regularly since 2002. The twelfth round of the Australia-Vietnam Human Rights Dialogue took place on 14 August 2015 in Canberra.
Australia's delegation usually includes representatives from the Australian Human Rights Commission, and senior officials from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Attorney-General’s Department.
The Human Rights Dialogue facilitates frank discussion about key human rights issues, including: freedom of expression, freedom of association and freedom of information in Vietnam; specific cases of concern; the severity of sentencing for democracy activists; and Australia's opposition to the death penalty. The rights of political prisoners and the harassment and physical abuse of activists have also been key areas of discussion.
Australia has welcomed improvements in some areas and encouraged implementation of these gains, particularly in relation to legal reforms, gender equality, and rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons.
Vietnam and Australia introduced a program of technical cooperation on human rights in 2006. The program, administered by the Australian Human Rights Commission and funded by the Australian Government, provides opportunities to foster practical cooperation between institutions with human rights responsibilities and expertise. The Australian Human Rights Commission has produced an overview of the program [PDF 47kb]. Australia has also funded programs in Vietnam under the Human Rights Grants Scheme. Funding for technical cooperation on human rights will conclude in 2016.
Australia also raises human rights at senior levels, including at ministerial-level, with the Vietnamese government at appropriate opportunities.
Australia plays a constructive role at the UN Human Rights Council, including through the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process. The UPR provides a forum for constructive discussion of human rights situations in all UN member states, including Vietnam, and identifies practical steps to address specific human rights concerns.
Australia was an active participant in Vietnam's two UPR reviews in 2009 and February 2014. Vietnam agreed with 182 of 227 recommendations made at their 2014 UPR. Australia welcomes this development and encourages implementation of the accepted recommendations by Vietnamese authorities as soon as practicable. See here for Australia’s 2014 statement for the UPR of Vietnam.
Rapid economic growth since the early 1990s has helped Vietnam to lift more than 35 million people out of poverty. It achieved lower middle-income status (GDP per capita AUD 1800) in 2010. Its economy is in transition from agrarian to industrialised and from centrally planned to market based. With a young and increasingly wealthy population of around 90 million and an ideal location to take advantage of regional economic progress, Vietnam has significant long-term potential.
Vietnam has been in transition from a centrally-planned to a market-based economy since the late 1980s. This process has accelerated over the last decade as Vietnam has worked towards and achieved WTO membership in January 2007. While significant reforms remain outstanding, changes to date have resulted in economic benefits for Vietnam, particularly through increased exports and foreign direct investment. Vietnam has spectacularly reduced its poverty rate from 58 per cent in 1993 to around 10 per cent in 2010 (basic needs poverty line).
Today, Vietnam is a low middle-income country with a strong outward orientation. Vietnam is the world’s second-largest coffee producer (after Brazil) and rice exporter (after Thailand). Its urban middle class is growing. However, Vietnam is still a developing country. Agriculture remains a key source of national income and employs more than half the workforce. Income disparities are pronounced. Many Vietnamese live in low-lying deltas, and Vietnam is one of five countries most vulnerable to rising sea levels.
Vietnam is committed to the long-term objective of global economic integration through participation in APEC (which it will host in 2017), the ASEAN Free Trade Area, the WTO and a growing network of free trade agreements, including the ASEAN–Australia–New Zealand FTA (AANZFTA) and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP). It is also a party to Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) negotiations. In December 2013, Vietnam became the 20th member of the Cairns Group.
Performance and outlook
Vietnam’s General Statistics Office recently reported 6.68 per cent GDP growth in 2015 – Vietnam’s highest rate for 5 years and higher than market expectations. The Manufacturing and construction sector was the key driver with 9.54 per cent growth. Both domestic and foreign investment increased substantially: Foreign Direct Investment rose by 17.4 per cent – attracted by positive developments in foreign ownership laws and anticipated opportunities from the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) and new free trade agreements, especially the TPP. As reform efforts from 2014 and 2015 start to bear fruit, including full implementation of the 2014 Investment and Enterprise Laws, together with other trade and investment facilitation policies, investment should continue to rise. As a result, growth is forecast to increase to close to 7 per cent in 2016 before returning to around 6.5 per cent in 2017.
International trade, investment and remittances
Goods and services exports now constitute over 80 per cent of Vietnam's GDP up from a 30 per cent share recorded in the mid-1990s. Vietnam's major exports are crude petroleum, telecommunications equipment, rice, rubber, footwear, coffee, jewellery articles, fish and furniture. The US remains Vietnam’s largest export market (19.1 per cent), followed by China (9.9 per cent), and Japan (9.8 per cent). Australia was the eighth largest export market in 2014 at 2.7 per cent.
Vietnam's major imports are refined petroleum products, telecommunications equipment, electronic circuits, iron and steel, gold, medicaments, chemicals, plastics and textile and garment inputs. China was the biggest exporter of products to Vietnam, accounting for 29.5 per cent of all imports into the country, followed by the Republic of Korea (14.7 per cent) and Japan (8.7 per cent). Australia ranked as the 12th largest import source in 2014, at 1.4 per cent.
Business operating environment
The Vietnamese Government is gradually loosening foreign investment limits, for example, by lifting the foreign ownership limit in listed companies to 49 per cent, and in unlisted companies to 40 per cent. The legal system is also undergoing major change to better align commercial statutes with international norms. The implementation of WTO commitments is gradually contributing to a better operating environment over the medium and longer-term as tariffs are cut, investment restrictions loosened still further, and a more transparent and predictable commercial legal and administrative system comes into place. This process will take some years to begin to show real benefits. The implementation of the TPP will boost further Vietnam’s competitiveness.
Vietnam has many economic strengths, not least the skills and entrepreneurial bent of its youthful workforce and its location in the most dynamic part of the globe. However, Vietnam faces many challenges in maintaining its growth and development trajectory over the longer term.
More information on the business operating environment is available at the Austrade website or the Australian Trade Commission in Vietnam.
Trade and investment
Vietnam was Australia's fastest growing export market in ASEAN during the 10-year period 2003-2013 (average annual growth of 16.3 per cent) and this trend continues.
The Ministerial level Australia–Vietnam Joint Trade and Economic Cooperation Committee (JTECC) is the primary government-to-government mechanism to take the bilateral trade and investment relationship forward, and address any problem areas. JTECC met for the tenth time on 13 December 2011 in Hanoi. The meeting provided an opportunity to discuss key areas of potential for increased bilateral trade and investment, including education and training; infrastructure; and resources and environment. Multilateral and regional issues of mutual interest were also discussed.
Australia and Vietnam are parties to the Agreement Establishing the ASEAN–Australia–New Zealand Free Trade Area (AANZFTA) which entered into force on 1 January 2010. Vietnam ratified the agreement on 24 June 2009. On 4 February 2016, Australia and Vietnam both became signatories to the Transpacific Partnership Agreement in New Zealand.
Total two-way trade between Australia and Vietnam in 2014-15 was around $10.2 billion.
Total two-way goods trade for 2014-15 was approximately $8.2 billion (ranked 14th—1.6 per cent share).
Total two-way services trade for 2014-15 was $2 billion.
Australia's major exports to Vietnam in 2014-15 were:
- Education-related travel services ($1 billion)
- Crustaceans ($709 million)
- Wheat ($415 million)
- Live animals (excluding seafood, ($331 million)
- Aluminium ($196 million)
Australia's major imports from Vietnam in 2014-15 were:
- Crude petroleum ($1.5 billion)
- Telecom equipment and parts ($1 billion)
- Personal travel ($536 million)
- Furniture, mattresses and cushions ($254 million)
- Footwear ($248 million)
Australian investment in Vietnam
Australian investment in Vietnam was valued at almost $1.2 billion in 2014, $1.1 billion being considered foreign direct investment. Over the past five years, the most significant Australian investments have involved expansions by established Australian companies, which continue to diversify their operations. Prominent examples include BlueScope Steel, ANZ Bank and QBE.
Export and investment opportunities for Australia
Vietnam's rapid economic growth over recent years has increased demand for imported goods, creating significant opportunities for Australian exporters of energy, dairy, meat, fast moving consumer goods, wheat and grains, machinery and services. While the global economic slowdown presented challenges, the long term outlook for Australia–Vietnam trade and business relationships remains positive.
The continuing shift towards a more market-based economy and strong economic growth in Vietnam has increased demand for education and training services. Education sector reforms are also underway with support from the Government of Vietnam and donors including the World Bank and Asian Development Bank. The need for training in areas such as English language, business and management and information technology remains high, especially in the major urban centres of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.
Australian companies are generally well received in Vietnam. Australia is regarded as a modern, technologically advanced and friendly country located within Vietnam's immediate sphere of interest. Long-term trade and investment opportunities should increase in line with Vietnam's progress in implementing its legislative and administrative reform program.
If you would like more information on specific export opportunities in Vietnam, or more information on export assistance, go to the Austrade website.
High level visits
Vietnam’s Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung visited Australia from 16‑18 March 2015 as a guest of the Australian Government. He was accompanied by a delegation of Ministers, Vice Ministers and business representatives. Prime Minister Dung met the Prime Minister, the Governor-General and a range of Australian political, business and community leaders during his visit.
Following their meeting in Canberra on 18 March 2015, then Prime Minister Abbott and Prime Minister Dung of Vietnam underscored the strength and breadth of Australia-Viet Nam ties and agreed to lift the relationship to a new level. The Prime Ministers witnessed the signing of the Declaration on Enhancing the Australia – Viet Nam Comprehensive Partnership, which sets out a high-level strategic agenda to guide the relationship in coming years. The Declaration covers regional and international cooperation, trade and investment, industry development, development assistance, defence, law enforcement and security. A suite of memoranda of understanding were also signed during Prime Minister Dung’s visit on unexploded ordnance removal, peacekeeping, a new working holiday maker visa arrangement and preventing human trafficking.
Reflecting the enormous commercial potential in the bilateral relationship, Prime Minister Dung participated in a high-level business roundtable in Sydney with senior Australian and Vietnamese business leaders. Underscoring the growing people-to-people links between Australia and Vietnam, Mr Dung met with Australian students planning to live, work and study in Vietnam under the New Colombo Plan.
Prime Minister Dung also planted a tree at the National Arboretum in Canberra. The species, Acacia Implexa, was developed jointly by Australian and Vietnamese scientists.
In February 2014, Minister for Foreign Affairs the Hon Julie Bishop MP made her first visit to Vietnam. She met with senior government figures in Hanoi to advance Australia's economic diplomacy agenda and visit the Australia-Vietnam Joint Trans-National Crime Centre in Ho Chi Minh City. During her visit, Ms Bishop announced new Australian support for Vietnam’s economic reform process and two initiatives to support the empowerment of women in Vietnam.
Visits from Vietnam to Australia
- 2016—Minister of Industry and Trade, Dr Vu Huy Hoang
- 2015—Minister of Public Health, Ms Nguyen Thi Kim Tien
- 2015—Minister of Public Security, Lieutenant General Tran Dai Quang
- 2015—Prime Minister, Mr Nguyen Tan Dung, accompanied by: Minister, Chairman of the Office of the Government, Mr Nguyen Van Nen; Minister of Industry and Trade, Dr Vu Huy Hoang; Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Mr Cao Duc Phat; Minister of Education and Training, Professor Dr Pham Vu Luan; Minister of Information and Communications, Mr Nguyen Bac Son; Minister of Planning and Investment, Mr Bui Quang Vinh; Minister of Transport, Mr Dinh La Thang; Vice Minister of National Defence, Senior Lieutenant General Nguyen Chi Vinh; Vice Minister of Public Security, Senior Lieutenant General To Lam; Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Le Hoai Trung; Vice Minister of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs, Mr Nguyen Thanh Hoa; and Assistant of the Prime Minister, Mr Bui Quoc Bao.
- 2015— Member of Central Committee of Vietnam's Communist Party and Deputy to the 13th National Assembly of Vietnam, President of the Vietnam Women’s Union , Madame Nguyen Thi Thanh Hoa
- 2015—Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, Mr Nguyen Minh Quang
- 2014 —Minister of Justice, Dr Ha Hung Cuong
- 2013—Minister of Industry and Trade, Dr Vu Huy Hoang, accompanied by an energy and resources delegation
- 2013—Minister of National Defense, General Phung Quang Thanh
- 2012—Minister of Finance: Professor Vuong Dinh Hue
- 2012—Deputy Prime Minister, Mr Nguyen Xuan Phuc, accompanied by Mr Nguyen Hoa Binh, Prosecutor General of the Supreme People's Procuracy, Mr Ha Hung Cuong, Minister of Justice; Mdm Pham Thi Hai Chuyen, Minister of Labour, War Invalids and Social Affairs, and Mr Huynh Phong Tranh, Minister, Inspector General of the Government Inspectorate.
- 2010—Minister of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs, Mme Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan
- 2010—Minister of Planning and Investment, Mr Vo Hong Phuc, accompanied by Vice Minister Le Duong Quang from Vietnam's Ministry of Industry and Trade (for the 9th meeting of the Australia-Vietnam Joint Trade and Economic Cooperation Committee)
- 2010—Vice President of Vietnam's National Assembly, Mr Uong Chu Luu, accompanied by a Parliamentary Delegation
- 2009—General Secretary Nong Duc Manh, accompanied by a senior delegation including the Deputy Prime Minister (also Minister of Foreign Affairs), the Minister of Planning and Investment, and the Minister of Industry and Trade
Visits from Australia to Vietnam
- 2014—Minister for the Environment, Mr Greg Hunt
- 2014—Speaker of the House of Representatives of Australia, Ms Bronwyn Bishop
- 2014—Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ms Julie Bishop (for bilateral meetings)
- 2013—Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Senator Brett Mason (to attend the ground-breaking ceremony for the Cao Lanh Bridge in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta)
- 2013—Speaker of the House of Representatives of Australia, Ms Anna Burke (to sign a Memorandum of Understanding to formalise the cooperative relationship between the parliaments of Australia and Vietnam)
- 2012—Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Senator Joe Ludwig (to strengthen ties and build trade opportunities for the agriculture sector ahead of the Asian Century)
- 2012—Minister for Defence, Mr Stephen Smith (for bilateral meetings)
- 2012—Minister for Foreign Affairs, Senator Bob Carr (for bilateral meetings)
- 2011—Minister for Trade, Dr Craig Emerson (to co-chair the 8th meeting of the Joint Trade and Economic Cooperation Committee)
- 2011—Governor-General, Ms Quentin Bryce AC (to strengthen the bilateral relationship between Australia and Vietnam)
- 2011—Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr Kevin Rudd (for bilateral meetings)
- 2010—Prime Minister, Ms Julia Gillard (for the East Asia Summit and bilateral meetings)
- 2010—Minister for Defence, Mr Stephen Smith (ASEAN Defence Ministers' Meeting-Plus (ADMM+) and signing of a Memorandum of Understanding for Defence Cooperation)
- 2009—Minister for Trade, Mr Simon Crean (to co-chair the 8th meeting of the Joint Trade and Economic Cooperation Committee)
- 2009—Minister for Immigration and Citizenship , Mr Chris Evans
Last Updated: 10 February 2016