Participants in the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) met at Lancaster
House, London, on 9-10 October. Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the UK and the US were represented.
The meeting was preceded on 8 October by an air interception command post
exercise (CPX), organised by the UK.
The London meeting was the fourth meeting of the PSI, consolidating and
building on the foundations laid at Madrid (12 June); Brisbane (9-10 July);
and Paris (3-4 September).
Following the publication of the Statement
of Interdiction Principles on
4 September 2003, PSI participants approached other countries to seek their
support for the Statement, and their views on how they might contribute to
Participants agreed that the response had been very encouraging. The Initiative
had been well received. Over 50 countries had already expressed support for
the Statement of Principles.
It was agreed that further co-ordinated outreach work would be needed to
broaden international understanding of and co-operation with the Initiative.
In this context, further regionally based meetings and activities would be
valuable. In this regard the meeting welcomed planned efforts in the Asian
region by Japan and Australia. The possibility was discussed of inviting
additional participants to specific PSI exercises or other activities, on
an ad hoc basis.
The meeting agreed that the PSI was a global initiative with an inclusive
mission. Successful interdiction of trafficking in WMD, their delivery systems
and related materials requires the widest possible co-operation between states.
Participation in the PSI, which is an activity not an organisation, should
be open to any state or international body that accepts the Paris Statement
of Principles and makes an effective contribution.
The meeting noted that participation would vary with the activity taking
place, and the contribution participants could provide. Some countries had
particular experience, assets or expertise relevant to all PSI activities;
other countries or organisations could be expected to contribute according
to their particular capabilities.
It was noted that a number of countries which had expressed particularly
keen interest in participating in future PSI activities and meetings had
experience and capabilities which would be of value to the Initiative, and
which should be taken into account in future decision making.
Focus of efforts
The Statement of Interdiction Principles, agreed at Paris in September,
outlines the scope of the Initiative. It makes clear that 'States or non-state
actors of proliferation concern' generally refers to those countries or entities
that the PSI participants involved establish should be subject to interdiction
activities because they are engaged in proliferation through: (1) efforts
to develop or acquire chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons and associated
delivery systems; or (2) transfers (either selling, receiving, or facilitating)
of WMD, their delivery systems, or related materials.
Participants agreed that the Initiative aimed to impede and stop trafficking
of WMD, their delivery systems and related materials by any state or non-state
actor engaged in or supporting WMD proliferation programmes, at any time
and in any place.
WMD is a global threat which calls for a global response. Participants looked
forward to working with all concerned states on developing the specific measures
they were able and willing to take in support of the PSI.
Participants had an initial exchange of views on a possible Boarding Agreement,
presented by the US, which could facilitate practical implementation of the
Initiative. They agreed that participants should make comments as rapidly
as possible, so that states which are interested can move forward with concluding
Participants agreed that future interdiction exercises should build on the
successful exercises that have already taken place: an Australian-led maritime
interdiction training exercise in the Coral Sea in September, and a UK-led
air interception command post exercise in London. Future exercises should
seek to integrate civil, military, and law enforcement decision making, as
The meeting agreed further steps to plan training exercises that will take
place in the coming months:
• Spanish led maritime interdiction training exercise in the Mediterranean,14-17
French led maritime interdiction training exercise in the Mediterranean,
Italian led air interception training exercise, 3-4 December
US led maritime interdiction training exercise in the Arabian Sea, January
Polish led ground interdiction exercise, early 2004
Italian led maritime interdiction exercise in the Mediterranean, Spring 2004
French led air interception exercise, Spring 2004
German led interdiction exercise, at an international airport, March 2004
It was noted that there could be lessons to be learnt from NATO's maritime
Contacts with international organisations
Participants agreed that all relevant fora should be kept informed of significant
developments under the Initiative. To this end, the chair of each PSI Plenary
meeting should, as appropriate, circulate its conclusions.
Recalling the 1992 UN Security Council Presidential Declaration on the proliferation
of WMD, the meeting noted the value of securing an expression of support
in relevant international fora for greater international co-operation against
trafficking in WMD, their delivery systems and related materials.
Concluding, the Plenary Chair noted that the broad direction of the PSI
had now been agreed. Plenary meetings might therefore become less frequent.
But exercises and expert discussion of specific operational and policy issues
under the PSI umbrella would continue, with the broadest possible participation
by states committed to PSI Principles and to making effective contributions.
The offer by the United States to host an operational experts' meeting in
December was warmly welcomed. A number of countries, beyond the original
11 participants, that support the PSI Principles and have concrete contributions
to make to PSI activities will take part in that meeting.
Participants warmly welcomed Portugal's offer to host the next PSI Plenary
meeting in early 2004.