1 For the importance of Malaya/Malaysia to Australia in the postwar era, see Peter Edwards with Gregory Pemberton (1992), Crises and Commitments: The Politics and Diplomacy of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1965, (Sydney: Allen & Unwin in association with the Australian War Memorial).

2 Department of Foreign Affairs & Trade (DFAT) (2014), Australia's Trade at a Glance, (Canberra: Australian Government), p. 26. See http://www.dfat.gov.au/trade/australias-trade-at-a-glance/ [Accessed 10 September 2015]

3 Daniel Oakman (2010), Facing Asia: A History of the Colombo Plan, (Canberra: ANU E Press), p. 186.

4 In 2014, 21 950 Malaysians were enrolled in Australian education institutions, across Higher Education, VET (Vocational Education and Training), Schools, ELICOS (English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students) and Non-Award courses. See Australian Education International (AEI) (2015), International Student Data 2014, 'Basic pivot table 2011–2014' at https://internationaleducation.gov.au/Pages/default.aspx [Accessed 10 September 2015]

5 These numbers are for calendar years, January to December. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (1976), Overseas Arrivals and Departures 1976, Table 9: Australian Residents Departing – Shortterm Movement, Reference 4.3, p. 7; ABS (2015), 3401.0 Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia, Dec 2014, Table 9: Short-term Movement, Resident Departures – Selected Destinations: Original, (Canberra: ABS)—see http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3401.0Dec%202014?OpenDocument [Accessed 10 September 2015]

6 ABS (1976), Overseas Arrivals and Departures 1976, Table 8: Visitors Arriving – Short-term Movement, Reference 4.3, p. 6; ABS (2015), 3401.0 Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia, Dec 2014, Table 5: Short-term Movement, Visitor Arrivals – Selected Countries of Residence: Original (Canberra: ABS)—see http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3401.0Dec%20 2014?OpenDocument [Accessed 10 September 2015]

7 Peta Stephenson (2007), The Outsider Within: Telling Australia's Indigenous-Australian History (Sydney: UNSW Press), p. 22. See also Regina Gantner (2006), Mixed Relations: Asian-Aboriginal Contact in North Australia, (Perth: UWA Publishing); and Paul Battersby (2007), To the Islands: White Australians and the Malay Archipelago since 1788, (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books), p. 14.

8 Rita Camilleri (2001), Attitudes and perceptions in Australia— Malaysia relations: a contemporary profile (Bangi: Pewerbit Universiti Kebangasan Malaysia), p. 19. Camilleri cites L. Williams (1993), 'Australia: the secret history', in Good Weekend, 2 October, pp. 1–16; and J. Ulry and M. Walsh (1981), 'The Lost Macassar Language of Northern Australia', in Aboriginal History (vol.1, pt 2), pp. 91–9.

9 There were 496 Malays in Western Australia's pearling industry at that time, compared with 236 Japanese, 271 Filipinos, and 119 Aborigines. See the State Library of Western Australia, Western Perspectives of a Nation, 'The Sea: Pearling'—http://slwa.wa.gov.au/ wepon/sea/html/pearling.html [Accessed 10 September 2015]

10 Christine Lewis (2013), 'George Town connections', in Trust News Australia, (vol. 6, no. 5, November) pp. 26–7.

11 Australian Commissioner in Malaya', Statement, Minister for External Affairs, RG Casey, 11 November 1955.

12 Note that the Official Website of the High Commission of Malaysia, Canberra, refers to Malaysia's (Malaya's) first Commissioner to Australia as Dato' Nik Kamil Mahmood, while DFAT's Diplomatic List (1956–1962) refers to Dato Nik Ahmed Kamil CBE. I have used the Government of Malaysia's name for the first Commissioner. See http://www.kln.gov.my/web/aus_canberra/n2007/-/asset_publisher/ME2g/blog/malaysia-australia-50-years-ofdiplomatic-relations?redirect=%2Fweb%2Faus_canberra%2Fn2007 [Accessed 10 September 2015]

13 The Malayan Commissioner arrived in Canberra as Mr Gunn Lay Teik, receiving the royal title Dato' in mid-1958.

14 News in Brief (1962), 'Aust. Ambassador to Marry', The Canberra Times, 27 July, p. 3.

15 No author (1965), 'Malaysia's progress—my most exciting experience, says Critchley' The Straits Times, 22 November, p. 6.

16 Letter, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra to The Rt. Hon Sir Robert Menzies, 28 October 1965.

17 Letter, RG Menzies to His Excellency Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, 18 November 1965.

18 'Malaysia's Progress', The Straits Times.

19 Special Correspondent (1965), 'Replacing Mr Critchley: Transfer leaves diplomatic void', The Canberra Times, 17 November, p. 15.

20 Edwards, Crises and Commitments, p.178.

21 Edwards, Crises and Commitments, p.188.

22 David Lee and Moreen Dee (2001), 'Southeast Asian Conflicts' in David Goldsworthy (ed.), Facing North: A Century of Australian Engagement with Asia, (Carlton South: Melbourne University Press), p. 268.

23 For the commemoration of Australia's relations with ASEAN, see Sally Percival Wood and Baogang He (2014), The Australia–ASEAN Dialogue: Tracing 40 Years of Partnership, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan).

24 See Seng Tan (2014), 'Hobnobbing with Giants: Australia's Approach to Asian Regionalism', in Percival Wood and He, The Australia—ASEAN Dialogue, p. 35.

25 Oakman, Facing Asia, p. 80.

26 RJ Cameron (1975 and 1976), Official Year Book of Australia, (Canberra: ABS), p. 324.

27 PwC-Melbourne Institute Asialink Index 2013 (2014), (Asialink: The University of Melbourne), p. 21—http://www.asialinkindex.com.au/2013/Investment.php [Accessed 10 September 2015]

28 DFAT (2014), Joint Media Statement, 'Malaysia Trade Ministers' Meeting', (Canberra: Australian Government), 13 August –http://trademinister.gov.au/releases/Pages/2014/ar_mr_140813.aspx [Accessed 19 January 2015]

29 DFAT's Malaysia Fact Sheet notes two-way investment stock in 2014 was $26.2 billion.

30 'Mission statement', The Australia—Malaysia Institute, (Canberra: DFAT)–http://www.dfat.gov.au/ami/charter.html [Accessed 10 September 2015]


1 Department of Defence (2013), 'Australia's International Defence Engagement: Southeast Asia', Defence White Paper 2013, (Canberra: Australian Government) Clause 6.32, p. 59. See http://www.defence.gov.au/Whitepaper/default.asp [Accessed 20 January 2015]

2 Definition found in Eddie Walsh (2011), 'Non-traditional security threats in Asia: Finding a regional way forward' in East Asia Forum, 4 June. See http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2011/06/04/non-traditionalsecurity-threats-in-asia-finding-a-regional-way-forward/ [Accessed 20 January 2015]

3 76 Australians were killed or wounded, and around 1000 Japanese casualties were inflicted in that battle. Joan Beaumont (1996), 'Australia's war: Asia and the Pacific', in J. Beaumont (ed) Australia's War, 1939–45, (St Leonards: Allen & Unwin), p. 27.

4 Beaumont, 'Australia's war', p. 27. See also Australian War Memorial (AWM) (2015) Research Centre, 'Military event: Malayan Campaign' http://www.awm.gov.au/military-event/E407/ [Accessed 21 January 2015]

5 Beaumont claims 14 per cent. (p. 27), however earlier sources claim 13 per cent. See Chris Coulthard-Clark (1998), 'Singapore', in Where Australians Fought: The Encyclopaedia of Australian Battles, (St Leonards: Allen & Unwin), p. 204. Coulthard-Clark takes his accounts of the Malayan Campaign from Lionel Wigmore (1957), The Japanese Thrust, (Canberra: Australian War Memorial).

6 For an account of these battles, see Lim Choo Hoon (2002), 'The Battle of Pasir Panjang Revisited', in Pointer, Journal of the Singapore Armed Forces (Ministry of Defence Singapore: vol. 28 no.1: Jan–Mar).

7 No author (1957), 'A general pays warm tribute to his Malay officers: Gen. Bruce arrives for Merdeka celebrations', The Singapore Free Press, 31 August.

8 AWM (2015) 'General Information about Australian prisoners of the Japanese' at http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/pow/general_info/ [Accessed 21 January 2015] The number of Australian prisoners of war resulting from the Malayan Campaign is usually rather vaguely stated as 15 000. Beaumont provides a specific 15 395, (p. 27), while Coulthard-Clarke states '14 972 (including 1306 wounded) [were] taken prisoner', (p. 204). As the latter figures inflate the number to 16 278. Beaumont's estimate has been used.

9 For these figures, see Lynette Ramsay Silver (2015), 'The Sandakan– Ranau Death Marches', at http://lynettesilver.com/sandakan/thedeath-marches/ [Accessed 21 January 2015]

10 AWM, 'General Information'. See also, Behind the Wire – Australian Prisoners of War 1940–1945 (2015), Australia's War 1939– 1945, 'the marches', at http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/behindwire/march.html [Accessed 21 January 2015]

11 Christopher Waters (2001), 'War, Decolonisation and Postwar Security', in David Goldsworthy (ed) Facing North: A Century of Australian Engagement with Asia, (Carlton South: Melbourne University Press) p. 120.

12 Statement made by Francis Stuart, Political Advisor, Australian Commission in Singapore, reported by Sunday Times Reporter (1950), 'Australia has no delusion on bandits', in The Straits Times, 21 May, p. 13.

13 Minister for External Affairs, Percy Spender (1950), International Affairs Statement, House of Representatives, (Commonwealth of Australia: Parliamentary Debates) 8 June, p. 4.

14 Peter Gifford (2001), 'The Cold War across Asia', in David Goldsworthy (ed), Facing North: A Century of Australian Engagement with Asia, (Carlton South: Melbourne University Press) p. 195.

15 The fighters and bombers were to follow 12 to 18 months later. Australia's RAAF bomber deployment to the Malayan Emergency from 1950 had used Tengah airfield in Singapore. See Edwards, Crises and Commitments, p. 178.

16 With the British withdrawal, under the FPDA, the Commonwealth forces with the FESR became the 28th ANZUK Brigade and the Australian battalion group moved from Terendak, to which they had relocated from Penang in October 1961, to Selarange Barracks Singapore, December 1969 to February 1970. The last battalion group was withdrawn from Singapore in February 1974.

17 Malaysia identifies Merdeka (Independence) Day as 31 August 1957, but also celebrates Malaysia Day in recognition of 16 September 1963. Both are public holidays in Malaysia.

18 Garry Barker (1963), 'Malaysia flag flies' The Herald, 17 September, p. 2.

19 Rita Camilleri (2001), Attitudes and perceptions in Australia– Malaysia relations: a contemporary profile, (Bangi: Pewerbit Universiti Kebangasan Malaysia), p. 38.

20 Moreen Dee (2005), Not a Matter for Negotiation: Australia's commitment to Malaysia 1961–1966, (Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia), pp. 11–12.

21 Dee, Not a Matter for Negotiation, pp. 11–12.

22 Dee, Not a Matter for Negotiation, p. 21.

23 Dee, Not a Matter for Negotiation, p. 39.

24 The Pingat Jasa Malaysia is offered to service personnel from Australia, Britain, New Zealand, Fiji, India and Nepal for their service during the periods of Malayan Emergency and Confrontation. More than 12 000 men and women have been identified as qualifying for the medal, and 8000 have received the award.

25 As a young officer, Major General Jeffrey served in Malaya in 1962 and later in Sarawak, while seconded to a British SAS regiment, during Konfrontasi.

26 No author (1970), 'Butterworth Takeover', The Straits Times, 2 April, p. 8.

27 See Joint Standing Committee (2007), Australia's Relationship with Malaysia, (Canberra: Australian Parliament), p. 22.

28 No author (1988), 'Aussie Squadron Leaves for Home: assistances to Continue', New Sunday Times, 17 April, p. 5.

29 Euan Graham (2014), 'FPDA—not fade away', The Strategist (Australian Strategic Policy Institute), 21 October, http://www.aspistrategist.org.au/fpda-not-fade-away/ [Accessed 25 January 2015]

30 See Royal Australian Navy (2015), 'Navy Today: Exercises', BERSAMA LIMA 2011 and BERSAMA SHIELD 2012 at http://www.navy.gov.au/navy-today/exercises [Accessed 25 January 2015]

31 Tim Huxley (2012), 'The Future of the Five Power Defence Arrangements', The Strategist (Australian Strategic Policy Institute) 8 November) http://www.aspistrategist.org.au/the-future-of-the-fivepower-defence-arrangements/ [Accessed 25 January 2015]

32 For example, the Centre for Defence and Strategic Studies, Australian Command and Staff College, Australian Defence Force Academy and the Royal Military College Duntroon.

33 Department of Foreign Affairs & Trade (DFAT) (2003), Annual Report: 2002-2003, 1.1.12 South and South-East Asia (Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia). See http://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/corporate/annual-reports/annual-report-2002-2003/downloads/index.html [Accessed 2 September 2015]

34 For details, see the Joint Agency Coordination Centre at http://www.jacc.gov.au/ [Accessed 25 January 2015]

35 ABC News (2014), 'Malaysia Airlines MH370: Malaysian PM Najib Razak briefed on search efforts', 3 April at http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-04-03/mh370-malaysian-pm-arrives-australia/5363394 [Accessed 20 January 2015]

36 Numbers taken from Dutch Safety Board (2014), Preliminary Report: Crash Involving Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777-200 flight MH17 (Hrabove, Ukraine, 17 July 2014), (The Hague: Dutch Safety Board) September, p. 12. The numbers come from the passports retrieved from MH17 passengers, though some passengers had dual nationality leading to different figures being quoted in the media.

37 Prime Minister of Australia (2014), 'Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston to lead Australia's response to MH17 investigation and recovery efforts' 21 July–https://www.pm.gov.au/media/2014-07-21/air-chief-marshal-angus-houston-lead-australias-response-mh17-investigation-and {Accessed 20 January 2015]


1 SR Carver, Acting Commonwealth Statistician (1956), 'Table X: Total Imports and Total Exports by Countries1951–52 to 1955–56', in Overseas Trade 1955–56, Bulletin no.53, (Canberra: Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics), p. 414. For the conversion—A£9 337 000 – A$292 842 272 (as at 2013), see Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), 'Pre-Decimal Inflation Calculator', at http://www.rba.gov.au/calculator/annualPreDecimal.html [Accessed 2 September 2015]

2 This amount comprises both merchandise exports (A$5 473 000) and services exports (A$1 766 000)—total A$7 259 000. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) (2015), 'Malaysia: Country Fact Sheet', (Canberra: DFAT).

3 These figures represent investment stock and are taken from DFAT's Malaysia: Country Fact Sheet. Excludes some confidential items of trade.

4 In the 1890s, Sinclair had been the Colony of Victoria's commercial trade representative in London.

5 Boris Schedvin (2008), Emissaries of Trade: A History of the Australian Trade Commissioner Service, (Canberra: Austrade/DFAT), p. 5.

6 Paul Battersby (2007), To the Islands: White Australians and the Malay Archipelago since 1788, (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books), p. 112. See also John Reynolds, 'Jones, Sir Henry (1862–1926)', Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB) (1983), vol. 9, (Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University (ANU))–http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/jones-sir-henry-6874/text11911 [Accessed 2 September 2015]

7 James G. Cooper, 'Palfreyman Achalen Woolliscroft (1875–1967)', ADB (1988), vol. 11, (Canberra: National Centre of Biography, ANU)–http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/palfreyman-achalenwoolliscroft-7945/text13829 [Accessed 2 September 2015]. By the 1950s, Palfreyman controlled several of the ten Australian-owned tindredging mines in Malaysia. At the time, there were only 25 Westernowned tin dredging companies remaining on the Malay Peninsula.

8 Overseas Trade 1955–56, p. 308.

9 Holden Cars History (2015), at http://www.classicholdencars.com/tag/history-of-holdens/ [Accessed 2 September 2015]; Graham Short (1957), 'Chrysler Royal: Not quite like U.S. model but it has its points', The Straits Times, 15 December, p. 20.

10 No author (1958), 'Trade Talks to Be Held with Malaya', The Canberra Times, 8 July, p. 4.

11 Schedvin, Emissaries of Trade, p. 217.

12 These figures are for the financial year 1965-66. KM Archer, Commonwealth Statistician (1966), 'No.22: Summary of Exports to Principal Countries1961–62 to 1965–66', in Overseas Trade 1965-66 Bulletin No.63 (Canberra: Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics), p. 867 and p. 844. Note that this amount only includes Singapore from 30 July 1965 to 30 September 1965. Note also, in February 1966, Australia's currency was decimalised, converting from the Australian pound to the Australian dollar. See RBA, 'Inflation Calculator' for today's equivalent, averaging $612m in 2014 or $597m in 2013.

13 Rita Camilleri (2001), Attitudes and perceptions in Australia— Malaysia relations: a contemporary profile (Bangi: Pewerbit Universiti Kebangasan Malaysia) p.39.

14 This was largely driven by the fact that Britain, traditionally Australia's largest trading partner, joined the European Economic Community (EEC), and Australia was forced to explore new trading relationships.

15 John Funston (1995), 'Australia–Malaysia Relations: A Maturing Partnership', in Zaniah Marshallsay (ed.), Australia–Malaysia Relations: New Roads Ahead,(Clayton: Monash Asia Institute), p. 94.

16 Australia Malaysia Business Council (2015), 'AMBC—Objectives', at http://www.ambc.org.au/about-ambc/ambc-objectives/ [Accessed 2 September 2015]

17 No author (1972), 'SEA free trade forecast', The Canberra Times, 8 January, p. 10.

18 Vietnam joined APEC in 1998, however the other more recent members of ASEAN, Burma, Cambodia and Laos are not. ASEAN is, nevertheless, an APEC Observer and this allows those states to participate in meetings and extends access to APEC documents and information.

19 Anthony Milner and Sally Percival Wood (eds) (2012), Our Place in the Asian Century: Southeast Asia as 'The Third Way', (Asialink: The University of Melbourne), p. 15.

20 These figures represent 2013 data. See DFAT (2015), ÁSEAN– Australia–New Zealand Free Trade Agreement' at http://www.dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/aanzfta/Pages/asean-australia-new-zealandfree-trade-agreement.aspx [Accessed 2 September 2015]

21 The TPP builds upon the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (2006) that consists of Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore. There are currently 12 parties involved in the TPP which, as well as the four originating members, includes Australia, Canada, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, the United States and Vietnam. The RCEP is an ASEAN initiative that proposes an FTA comprising all ten ASEAN nations, plus their current FTA partners, which include Australia, China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea and New Zealand.

22 Austrade (2015), 'Malaysia: Doing Business', at http://www.austrade.gov.au/Export/Export-Markets/Countries/Malaysia/Doingbusiness#.VNHNx3n9nIU [Accessed 2 September 2015]

23 Department of Industry and Science (2015), 'Resources: Australian Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)', at http://www.industry.gov.au/resource/UpstreamPetroleum/AustralianLiquefiedNaturalGas/Pages/default.aspx [Accessed 2 September 2015]

24 Austrade (2015), 'Malaysia seeks Australian oil and gas expertise', 11 February at http://www.austrade.gov.au/News/Latest-from-Austrade/2015/malaysia-seeks-australian-oil-and-gas-expertise [Accessed 2 September 2015]


1 Federation of Malaya (1958), Federation of Malaya Annual Report 1957, (Kuala Lumpur: GR Smith, Government Printer), p. 263. In December 2014 there were 22 071 Malaysians enrolled in Australian education institutions. See Department of Education and Training (2015) International Student Data 2014, 'Table 7a: All Sector Year To Date Enrolments by Top 10 Nationalities by State/Territory for December 2014', (Canberra: Australian Government), at https://internationaleducation.gov.au/research/International-Student-Data/ Pages/InternationalStudentData2014.aspx#Pivot_Table [Accessed 2 September 2015]

2 Prime Minister Julia Gillard (no date), 'Shaping the Direction of our Bilateral Partnership', Australia Malaysia: Forging Ahead, at http://www.australiamalaysia.com.au/en/features.html [Accessed 2 September 2015]

3 Federation of Malaya Annual Report 1957, pp. 244-5.

4 VI Form was the equivalent of college education. Federation of Malaya Annual Report 1957, p. 262.

5 In comparison, 660 Malaysian students went to the United Kingdom in 1957 (223 government funded and 437 private); and 49 went to New Zealand (48 government funded and 1 private). Federation of Malaya Annual Report 1957, pp. 258-64.

6 Page Research Centre (2013), 'Developing Policy: The Colombo Plan—A network for the future', Discussion Paper, (Canberra: Page Research Centre), p. 3.

7 The Universities of Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Tasmania, Queensland and Western Australia.

8 In 1961 Monash University; 1964 Macquarie University and LaTrobe University; 1965 the University of Newcastle and the Queensland University of Technology; and 1966 Flinders University.

9 Geoffrey Sauer (ed) (2001), The Colombo Plan for Cooperation Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia 1951–2001: The Malaysian—Australian Perspective, Australia Malaysia Cultural Foundation (Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia), p. 29.

10 Chai Hon Chan (1957), 'Students find it easy to earn that extra pocket money', The New Straits Times, 31 March, p. 10.

11 Malaysian Student, Med II (unnamed) (1964), 'Fair Dinkum Asians', Lot's Wife, 8 July, p. 6.

12 Anthony Welch (2014), 'Richer Relations? Four Decades of ASEAN–Australia Relations in Higher Education', in Sally Percival Wood and Baogang He (eds), The Australia–ASEAN Dialogue: Tracing 40 Years of Partnership, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan), p. 153–4.

13 See the Education Malaysia Australia website at http://www.ema.org.au/v2/?page_id=309 [Accessed 2 September 2015]

14 See the Malaysian Students' Council of Australia website at http://www.masca.org.au/ [Accessed 2 September 2015]

15 See Malaysia Festival '15 (2015), MFest 2015, at http://www.malaysiafest.com.au/#s-home [Accessed 2 September 2015]

16 Welch, 'Richer Relations', p. 147.

17 France was the first Associate Member, admitted in July 1973, followed by Australia and New Zealand in November 1973.

18 Over the past 11 years, more than 7000 Taylor's College students have been placed in international universities–http://college.taylors.edu.my/university-placement/university-listing [Accessed 2 September 2015].

19 Chairman's Statement, 9th East Asia Summit (2014), Education, Clause 15, 13 November. See http://www.dfat.gov.au/internationalrelations/regional-architecture/eas/Pages/chairmans-statement-ofthe-9th-east-asia-summit.aspx [Accessed 2 September 2015]

20 Hon Julie Bishop MP (2015), Australian High Commission Kuala Lumpur website, 'New Colombo Plan Launched in Malaysia', 7 August at http://malaysia.highcommission.gov.au/klpr/media_ncp_msia_launch.html [Accessed 15 September]

21 The RCA was established in 1972 and currently has 21 members in the Asia–Pacific. It was established under the auspices of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) for cooperation and coordination of research, development, and training projects in nuclear science and technology.

22 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (2013), ANSTO Annual Report 2012–13, (Lucas Heights, NSW: Australian Government), p. 30.

23 CSIRO (2012), 'Petronas partnership to investigate alternative and clean energy technologies', 19 June at http://www.csiro.au/Outcomes/Energy/Energy-from-oil-and-gas/Petronas.aspx [Accessed 2 September 2015]

24 DFAT (2007), Australia's Relationship with Malaysia, Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, (Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia), pp. 8-9.

25 K. C. Boey (1993), 'Monash sets up Malaysian studies centre', New Straits Times, 3 March.

26 See Asia education Foundation, 'Curriculum Resources: Malaysia', at http://www.asiaeducation.edu.au/teachers/curriculum_resources/countries/malaysia_cr/malaysia_cr.html [Accessed 2 September 2015]

27 The A2ELP was jointly convened by ISIS Malaysia, the St James Ethics Centre and Asialink from 2011 to 2013. In 2014 and 2015 ISIS Malaysia partnered with The Asia Foundation.


1 For further information on MANZA, see http://www.manza.org/about-manza/ [Accessed 2 September 2015]

2 Idris El Hhareir and Raane M'Baye (2011), The Different Aspects of Islamic Culture: Volume Three—The Spread of Islam Throughout the World, (Paris: UNESCO Publishing), pp. 840–1. The 'Cape Malay' community in Capetown, South Africa, was made up of Malays moved there by Dutch and British colonisers from the seventeenth century.

3 The Dictionary of Sydney Trust (2012), Dictionary of Sydney: Malaysians at http://dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/malaysians [Accessed 2 September 2015]. The pearl diving industry received special exemption under the terms of Australia's Immigration Restriction Act introduced in 1901.

4 Department of Immigration and Border Protection (2015), Malaysia Country Profile, at https://www.border.gov.au/about/reports-publications/research-statistics/statistics/live-in-australia/country-profiles/malaysia [Accessed 2 September 2015]

5 Transcript, James Fox, Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (2006), Australia's relations with Malaysia, Public Hearing, 9 October, p. 56.

6 Dictionary of Sydney.

7 For information, see Malay Australian Association of New South Wales (MAAN) at http://www.malay.org.au/index.htm [Accessed 2 September 2015]

8 Joyce Ng (2014), 'Building the first Malay Mosque in Melbourne to Strengthen Ties', JOM Magazine, ,28 May, at http://jommagazine.com.au/building-the-first-malay-mosque-in-melbourne-tostrengthen-ties/ [Accessed 2 September 2015]

9 AMI (2015), 'Muslim Leadership Program 2012: A program in interfaith dialogue and capacity building', (Canberra: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) at http://dfat.gov.au/people-to-people/foundations-councils-institutes/australia-malaysia-institute/programs/pages/interfaith-program.aspx#mlp [Accessed 2 September 2015]

10 Frank Clune (1942), Isles of Spice, (New York: EP Dutton and Co. Inc.), p. 277.

11 Yeng Ai Chun (2008), 'Fond Memories from ex-RAAF staff', The Star Online, 27 May at http://bit.ly/1SnSau6 [Accessed 2 September 2015]

12 RAAF Radio Butterworth is still fondly remembered through a Facebook group. See https://www.facebook.com/pages/RAAFRadio-Butterworth/189475601180250?sk=timeline&ref=page_internal [Accessed 2 September 2015]. There are also a number of sound clips from RRB on YouTube. Go to https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=raaf+radio+butterworth [Accessed 2 September 2015]

13 This number is for the 1975 calendar year. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (1976) Overseas Arrivals and Departures 1976, Table 9. Australian Residents Departing - Short-term Movement, Reference 4.3, p. 7.

14 Putra Laxana (1984), 'A massive drive to woo, win the Aussies', New Straits Times, 18 July.

15 K. Baradan (1988), 'New pact gives MAS extra flight to Australia', The Star, 2 July; and Focus on Airline Services (no author) (1989), 'Popular spot among Aussies', New Sunday Times, 26 February.

16 These numbers are for calendar years, January to December, ABS (2015), 3401.0 Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia, Dec 2014 Table 9: Short-term Movement, Resident Departures - Selected Destinations: Original, (Canberra: ABS)—see http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3401.0Dec%202014?OpenDocument [Accessed 2 September 2015]

17 See Tourism Malaysia (2015), 'Malaysia Tourist Arrivals by Country of Nationality December 2014', at http://corporate.tourism.gov.my/research.asp?page=facts_figures [Accessed 17 September 2015]

18 Tourism Australia (2014), Key Asian marketss drive July visitor arrivals growth, 'Table 1—Visitors by country of residence', 5 September at http://www.tourism.australia.com/news/Research/research-10868.aspx [Accessed 2 September 2015]

19 Australian War Memorial, 'General Information'. See also, Behind the Wire—Australian Prisoners of War 1940–1945 (2015), Australia's War 1939–1945, 'the marches', at http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/ behindwire/march.html [Accessed 2 September 2015]

20 High Commissioner Rod Smith, quoted in Bernama (2014), 'Australia Hails Lasting Bond With Malaysia Forged During Sandakan Death March', NewSarawakTribune.com, 16 August. See http://www.newsarawaktribune.com/news/32793/Australia-hailslasting-bond-with-Malaysia-forged-during-Sandakan-Death-March/ [Accessed 2 September 2015]

21 Lynette Ramsay Silver (2010), Blood Brothers: Sabah and Australia 1942–1945, (Sabah: Opus Publications). Interview with author, 23 January 2015.

22 Tourism Australia (2014), 'A taste of Restaurant Australia for Malaysian travel trade', Essentials Newsletter, 27 August at http://storage.coremotivesmarketing.com/library/cff6edde-da90-e211-8727-00155d32390f/1652/landingpages/993f3e17-792d-e411-b59c-0050569b211c.html [Accessed 2 September 2015]

23 Austrade (2014), 'Culinary Challenge winner announced', 24 September at http://www.studyinaustralia.gov.au/news/culinarychallenge-winner-announced. For the finalists' videos, see, Austrade, 'Study in Australia', Videos, at https://www.youtube.com/user/afutureunlimited/videos [Accessed 2 September 2015]

24 Ella Archibald-Binge and Anton Enus (2015), 'The best birthday ever: Poh Ling Yeow relives her first day Down Under', SBS News, 9 January at http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2015/01/09/bestbirthday-ever-poh-ling-yeow-relives-her-first-day-down-under; See also, http://pohlingyeow.com/index.html [Accessed 2 September 2015]

25 See SBS (2015), Take a tour of Poh's Adelaide, 23 April, at http://www.sbs.com.au/food/programs/poh-and-co/slideshow [Accessed 2 September 2015]

26 Ella Archibald-Binge and Anton Enus (2015), 'Celebrity chef Adam Liaw looks back on early life in Australia'. SBS News, 7 January at http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2015/01/06/celebrity-chefadam-liaw-looks-back-early-life-australia. See also http://adamliaw.com [Accessed 2 September 2015]

27 Archibald-Binge and Enus, 'Celebrity chef Adam Liaw'.

28 See Rogue Art (2002), An A-Z Guide to Malaysian Art, The Narratives in Malaysian Art Project, (Kuala Lumpur: Rogue Art), p. 17. For more on Frank Sullivan and the early years of the National Art Gallery of Malaysia, see Neil Manton (2008), The Arts of Independence: Frank Sullivan in Singapore and Malaysia, (Canberra: Holt Arts).

29 No author (1960), 'Malayan Federation stages exhibition of paintings by Australian artists', The Canberra Times, 29 November, p. 16.

30 Located in the northwest corner of South Australia, the region's population of around 2500 comprises the Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra peoples (or Anangu).

31 Exhibition Notes (2000), Di Antara Dua Pedalaman / Between Remote Regions, A South Australia / Malaysia Cultural Exchange, (Port Adelaide: Country Arts SA).

32 Helen Musa (1994), 'Australia lavishes culture on Malaysia', The Canberra Times, 22 October, p. 9.

33 Musa, 1994.

34 Asialink Arts Residencies have been supported by the Australian Council for the Arts and all the state and territory government Arts bodies/agencies and in Malaysia, the Hijjas family and Rimbun Dahan have extended their support.

35 See Asialink website for more details - http://asialink.unimelb.edu.au/arts/asialink_2015_arts_residents [Accessed 2 September 2015]

36 Judith Elen (2012) 'A couple with grand designs' The Australian, 23 June. See http://www.theaustralian.com.au/life/travel/a-couple-withgrand- designs/story-e6frg8rf-1226404572074 [Accessed 2 September 2015]

37 In addition to the Australian artist residencies, other residencies for ASEAN country artists, other international artists, and for choreographers are supported at Rimbun Dahan. See http://rimbundahan.org/?page_id=22 [Accessed 2 September 2015]

38 Thanks to Angela Hijjas for sharing her personal story and the story of her family's work in nurturing the Australia—Malaysia art exchange. Interview in Kuala Lumpur on 10 February 2015.

39 No author (1956), 'Australian Films for Malaya', The Canberra Times, 15 November, p. 9.

40 Opalyn Mok (2013), 'Tropfest SEA to showcase short films from the region, Malay Mail Online, 20 December, at http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/tropfest-sea-to-showcaseshort-films-from-the-region [Accessed 2 September 2015]. For more information, see http://tropfest.com/sea/ [Accessed 2 September 2015]. The only conditions for a Tropfest entry are that films must be limited to seven minutes and that the Tropfest Signature Item (TSI) must be featured. For the 2014 festival in Malaysia, the TSI was rice and, in 2015, it was a wheel.

41 Chandran Jeshurun (2007), Malaysia: Fifty Years of Diplomacy, 1957–2007, (Petaling Jaya: The Other Press Sdn Bhd), p. 366, citing High Commissioner to Malaysia (1969–72) John Rowland's recollection that diplomats had to adjust to the Tunku's diplomatic style and that many important decisions were believed to have been made during a round of golf.

42 Special Correspondent (1965), 'Replacing Mr Critchley: Transfer leaves diplomatic void', The Canberra Times, 17 November, p. 15.

43 Thanks to three Australian diplomats, whose first postings were to Kuala Lumpur, for sharing their memories: Geoff Bentley (1964–67), Jan Arriens (1969–71) and Rex Stevenson (1970–72).

44 ABS (1957), Overseas Trade, 1955–56, 'Table 1: Exports from Australia, 1955–56', Bulletin no. 53, (Canberra: Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics), p. 34.

45 Tan Chin Nam with Larry Parr (2006), Never Say I Assume!, (Selangor: MPH Publishing), p. 221.

46 Tan, Never Say I Assume! p. 227.

47 No author (1957), 'Malayans See Australian Rules Football', The Canberra Times, 25 February, p. 3.

48 For details go to http://azlanshahcup.my/ [Accessed 2 September 2015]

49 Stephanie Sta Maria (2014), 'Ong Beng Teong's Vision for Australian badminton', JOM Magazine, 18 June, at http://jommagazine.com.au/ong-beng-teongs-vision-australianbadminton/ [Accessed 2 September 2015] See also, Pro Badminton Academy, at http://www.probadmintonacademy.com/index.html [Accessed 2 September 2015


1 Julie Bishop MP (2015), 'Address to Institute of Strategic and International Studies Institute', 8 August at 'New Colombo Plan Launched in Malaysia', http://foreignminister.gov.au/speeches/Pages/default.aspx [Accessed 27 October].