Chile country brief


Australia and Chile have a strong bilateral relationship, based on many shared interests and cooperation in a range of international fora. Both countries are major mining and agricultural economies, and share an Asia-Pacific trade focus. Bilateral free trade, double taxation and social security agreements underpin the growing trade and investment relationship between our two countries.

The Chilean government had consular representation in Australia as early as 1899 in Newcastle. Diplomatic ties were established when the first Chilean chargé d'affaires en titre presented credentials in Canberra on 5 July 1945. After several periods of suspension, the mission was upgraded in September 1969 to an Embassy and an Ambassador was appointed. Similarly, an Australian Legation in Chile was established in August 1946 and after a period of suspension, Australia announced the decision to re-establish a mission in the form of an embassy in Santiago in June 1968. In 2015, Australia and Chile marked the 70th anniversary of diplomatic relations.

Chile is a long, narrow country on South America’s southern Pacific Coast, extending 4,270 km in length and averaging 177 km in width. It encompasses approximately 2,300 islands, including Easter Island and spans from the Strait of Magellan, which separates South America from Antarctica, to the arid north dominated by the Atacama Desert. Chile is slightly smaller than New South Wales in terms of total land area. The high, snow-capped Andes mountain range, with peaks reaching over 6,000 metres, runs the length of Chile, creating a natural 6,691 km border with Argentina to the east and a 942km border with Bolivia in the far north-east. Chile also shares a short 168km land border with Peru. Chile’s geography ranges from arid desert in the north, temperate agricultural in the central regions, to glacial ice fields in the southern Patagonian region. The etymology of the word ‘Chile’ is subject to many theories, including but not limited to: the name of a bird in a local indigenous language; the name of a local chieftain, ‘Tili’, which was pronounced ‘Chili’ by the Inca; or a local word for the ‘end of the world’.

Chile’s population is approximately 18.2 million (2016 est.), comprising 89 per cent of non-indigenous and 10 per cent indigenous peoples. Roman Catholicism is the main religion (67 per cent) with other Christian groups (17 per cent) and no-religion (12 per cent) the main minorities. Spanish is the official language.

Political overview

Following the indigenous Araucanian people’s successful resistance against the first Spanish invasion of Chile in 1535, Pedro de Valdivia began the final Spanish conquest in 1541 and founded the city of Santiago. Chile achieved independence from Spain in 1818 after the Spanish were defeated by the Army of the Andes, led by Jose de San Martin and Bernardo O'Higgins. The War of the Pacific, which took place from 1879-83, involved Chile, Bolivia and Peru. The conflict grew out of a dispute between Chile and Bolivia to control part of the Atacama Desert, an area considered to contain valuable mineral resources. Peru’s interest stemmed from its long running tensions with Chile for hegemony on the Pacific Coast and as such it supported Bolivia in its war against Chile. A truce was ultimately drawn between Chile and Bolivia, following defeat and loss of life, in which control of the Bolivian Coast was given to Chile. This arrangement was made permanent in 1904.

In modern times, the armed forces, under the leadership of General Augusto Pinochet, staged a coup on 11 September 1973, overthrowing the left-wing government of Salvador Allende. President Allende died in the Presidential Palace on the same day. The military junta suspended the constitution, dissolved congress, imposed strict censorship and banned all political parties. During a military dictatorship lasting 16 years, thousands of political opponents were arrested, tortured and/or executed, or forced into exile. In December 1989, Chile returned to democracy, with Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin winning the presidential election. Successive governments, have maintained Chile’s liberal economic policies. Chile is the only South American nation to have acceded to the OECD.

System of government

Under Chile's constitution, the president, as head of state, serves a four-year term and is unable to serve a second consecutive term. In the bicameral congress, Chile's Chamber of Deputies and Senate have 120 and 38 elected members respectively. Deputies sit in office for four years, while Senators are elected to serve an eight-year period.

Former president (2010‒2014) and businessman Sebastian Piñera of the Chile Vamos coalition was inaugurated as Chile's new president on 11 March 2018. The new President of the Senate, Carlos Montes, and the President of the House of Deputies, Maya Fernández Allende, are both from the opposition Socialist Party.

Foreign policy

Chile's important regional partners are Argentina, Brazil, and the 'Pacific Alliance' members, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. The Pacific Alliance economic integration process, covering goods, services, people and capital, offers potential economic opportunities beyond Chile's current bilateral FTAs with these countries. For example, Pacific Alliance members have integrated their stock exchanges to form the second-largest stock exchange in Latin America.

Chile has maintained consular, but not diplomatic relations with Bolivia since 1978 and the War of the Pacific, which has led to a long-term border dispute. Bolivia has sought to regain a coastline, including by bringing a claim against Chile before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2014. Hearings on whether the ICJ had jurisdiction in the matter commenced in May 2015. In September 2015 the ICJ ruled that it had jurisdiction to entertain the claim filed by Bolivia. The case is currently before the Court.

On 27 January 2014, the ICJ issued its final judgment over a longstanding maritime border dispute between Chile and Peru. Despite requiring Chile to cede territory, both countries have agreed to abide by the ruling in what some see as a cause for optimism regarding bilateral relations between the two nations.

Chile is an associate member of Mercosur (the Customs Union comprising Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and the currently suspended Venezuela). It is also an associate member of the Andean Community (comprising Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru).

Chile is an active participant in major international forums, including the United Nations, Organisation of American States (OAS), Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Organisation for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, World Trade Organisation (WTO), Union of South American States (UNASUR) and Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC). Chile served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council during the periods 1952-53, 1961-62, 1996-97, 2003-04 and 2014-15.

China is Chile's largest trading partner. In November 2016, Chile and China upgraded relations to a "comprehensive strategic partnership" and completed an upgrade of the 2006 Chile-China FTA in November 2017. Chile was the first South American country to establish diplomatic ties with China in 1970, the first country in South America to sign off bilaterally on China's accession to the WTO and the first to conclude an FTA with China.

Chile's trade focus in Asia is supported by a growing list of free trade agreements and investment treaties, including with China, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, Republic of Korea and Vietnam.

Chile has strong political, economic and trade relations with the United States (US). Bilateral trade has more than doubled since the US-Chile Free Trade Agreement (FTA) entered into force in 2004 that allows 100 per cent of U.S. consumer and industrial goods to be exported to Chile duty free.

Bilateral relations

As members of the Cairns Group, Australia and Chile work to ensure that agricultural trade reform issues are a priority in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round. Both are among the countries negotiating the Plurilateral Services Agreement. In 2017, Australia launched FTA negotiations with Chile as a member of the Pacific Alliance (Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru). Any arrangement will complement the 2009 Australia-Chile FTA.

In 2012, Australia commenced a senior officials' dialogue with the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) during Chile's pro-tempore presidency. Australia and Chile also cooperate in APEC to promote trade and investment liberalisation and facilitation in the Asia-Pacific region. Both countries also share common interests in regional and global issues ranging from the environment, the Antarctic and illegal fishing, through to disarmament and regional security.

The first known Chilean to arrive in Australia was former president and political exile, General Ramon Freire, who arrived in 1838. Australia's third Prime Minister, John Christian (Chris) Watson, was born in the Chilean port city of Valparaiso in 1867 and emigrated to Australia, via New Zealand, in 1886. Chileans in Australia numbered 90 in the 1901 Census and grew slowly until the late 1960s. Numbers increased more rapidly from the 1970s onwards, with the 2016 Census recording 26,086 Chilean-born people in Australia. Australia's Chilean diaspora now includes second and third generation Chilean Australians.

In December 2014, the inaugural Australia-Chile Economic Leadership Forum (ACELF) was held in Santiago with the aim of exploring new ways to expand and deepen the Australia-Chile bilateral relationship. The event attracted high-level public and private participation from both countries, including Australia’s then Minister for Trade and Investment, Andrew Robb AO MP, then President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, former Chilean Presidents Ricardo Lagos and Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, as well as then Chilean Ministers for Foreign Affairs, the Economy, Mining and Energy. Former President Frei and then Mining Minister Aurora Williams attended the second ACELF in Melbourne in December 2016.

In 2001, the Australian Government established the Council on Australia-Latin America Relations (COALAR) which aims to enhance commercial, political and cultural relations between Australia and Latin America. Since its inception, COALAR has been active in promoting business, education, tourism and cultural links between Australia and Latin America. For updates on COALAR activities and information on the annual grants program, follow COALAR on Facebook.

People to people links

Australia is an attractive education destination for Chileans. In 2017, there were 3,231 Chilean students studying in Australian educational institutions, making Chile the third-largest source of international students from Latin America, after Brazil and Colombia.

Australia's bilateral education relationship with Chile is well developed. In July 2015, Foreign Minister Julie Bishop MP signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Education with Chile’s Vice Minister for Education Valentina Quiroga in Santiago. Additional collaborative agreements exist between Australian education and training institutions.

The Australian Government’s Australia Awards–Endeavour Scholarships and Fellowships and Endeavour Mobility Grants support two-way engagement between Australia and the rest of the world. In 2018, Chilean scholars were offered one Endeavour Postgraduate Scholarship and two Endeavour Research Fellowships, while 30 Australian students will have a study experience in Chile under the Endeavour Mobility Grants program.

Chilean Government and local education providers, covering scholarships, student exchanges and double degree arrangements. Australia is among the top destination countries for scholarship students funded by the Chilean Government's Becas Chile Scholarship Program, under which more than 760 students have been sent to study in Australia since 2009. The program includes postgraduate, undergraduate and vocational education and training scholarships. New opportunities are emerging for Australian education and training providers in areas such as mining, energy and water management, where Australia has research and teaching strengths and Chile has human-capital development needs. Greater engagement between government, researchers, education and training providers and industry is taking place as a result.

Short-term visitor numbers have been growing since Qantas began direct flights from Sydney to Santiago in March 2012, in addition to Latam services via Auckland, which commenced in 2002. In February 2015, capacity was doubled to 4,000 seats per week each way under an expanded bilateral air service agreement. In December 2015, Qantas added a fifth direct flight each week on the Sydney-Santiago route during peak seasons while Latam commenced direct services from Melbourne to Santiago in October  2017. Chilean tourism authorities recorded the arrival of 50,968 Australians in 2016.

In September 2011, Australia introduced an e-visa for Chilean tourists visiting Australia. The e-visa processing system has benefitted relatives of the large resident Chilean community in Australia and facilitated a greater flow of Chilean tourists to Australia. In July 2005, Australia and Chile signed a MOU establishing a work and holiday visa program. This program began with 100 available places, and has increased to 2,000 places, reflecting the popularity of the program. Under the program, young Chileans and Australians with appropriate qualifications and language skills can explore living and working in the other country. Also, since October 2014, Chileans transiting Australia for a period of eight hours or less do not require a visa.

Development assistance

In 2017, Chile graduated from the OECD list of countries eligible to receive official development assistance.

From 2010 to 2014, Australia provided $100 million in official development assistance to Latin America, including 250 Australia Awards scholarships. Chile received 23 Australia Awards Scholarships, while the Australia Awards Fellowships program remains in place of which 14 have been awarded to Chileans. The regional development assistance program has now closed, though some activities that have already been funded will continue until 2017. Following the 2010 Chile earthquake and tsunami, Australia provided $5 million for the immediate emergency relief, and helped Fundación Integra to reconstruct and restore 32 child care centres.

Economic overview

For the latest economic data refer to Chile country/economy fact sheet [PDF 31 KB].

Economic outlook

Chile retains an open economy with a liberal trade regime, including a floating exchange rate, a rules-based counter-cyclical fiscal policy, and inflation-targeting, all geared towards reducing economic volatility. The Chilean government's strong fiscal position has allowed for the repayment of debt and modest increases in education spending to help address poverty. in 2017 economic growth was 1.7 per cent, on par with 1.6 per cent in 2016. Unemployment rose to 7.0 per cent from 6.5 per cent in 2016.

Chile has eliminated most trade distortions and non-tariff barriers. It has a uniform tariff of six per cent, although due to its network of FTAs, the average applied tariff is much less. The Central Bank of Chile maintains an independent monetary policy aimed at maintaining inflation at OECD standards. Privatisation over the past two decades has meant that relatively few state-owned enterprises remain. However, CODELCO, the Chilean National Copper Corporation, Chile's largest company, remains state-owned.

Chile's strong push to engage economically with the Asia-Pacific region and to build strategic alliances along the eastern seaboard of South America is reflected in its busy FTA agenda. Chile has 26 preferential trade agreements in place, including a partial-scope agreement with India and agreements with the EU Mercosur, P4 (precursor to the TPP) and Pacific Alliance.

Bilateral economic and trade relationship

Chile is Australia's third-largest trading partner in Latin America, with two-way goods and services trade of $1.4 billion in 2016-17.  Our largest export is coal ($349 million), with copper, other ores and concentrates our primary import ($205 million).  Australia is the sixth largest foreign investor in Chile, worth over $6.34 billion.

In June 2017, Australia launched FTA negotiations with Chile as a member of the Pacific Alliance (Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru). Any arrangement will complement the Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement (ACIFTA) which entered into force in March 2009. As of 2015, tariffs have been eliminated on 100 per cent of existing merchandise trade, except on sugar. The FTA also contains provisions with respect to services and investment liberalisation, and guarantees access to government procurement markets. The ACIFTA was Australia's fifth free trade agreement and the first with a Latin American country.

The Australia-Chile Double Taxation Agreement (DTA) entered into force in February 2013. The agreement provides certainty for Australian and Chilean businesses through a framework for the taxation of cross-border transactions. It reduces barriers to the cross-border movement of people, capital and technology, primarily through reducing withholding taxes on dividend, interest and royalty payments.

The Australia-Chile Social Security Agreement, which came into effect on 1 January 2004, improved social security protection for those who have lived and/or worked in both Australia and Chile. The social security agreement also exempts Australian employers from the need to provide Chile social security support for Australian employees sent temporarily to work in Chile, provided the employee remains covered in Australia, by compulsory superannuation arrangements.

Further information is available on the Australian Taxation Office website or the Department of Social Services website.

Trade and investment

Chile is developing frameworks to encourage more foreign investment and trade, with a view to stable and sustainable economic growth.. Developments in the relationship, such as the ACIFTA and DTA have significantly reduced barriers to trade and investment. The ACIFTA has a review process, and we would welcome advice of any further obstacles faced by Australian companies when doing business in Chile. Austrade's Santiago office and the Australia-Chile Chamber of Commerce work on promoting trade and investment links between the two countries.

Australian companies are significant investors in Chile as the country maintains a relatively open business environment that has made it an ideal base for Australian companies looking to expand into Latin America. AClFTA has enhanced an already positive business environment for Australian companies. Over 220 companies are active in Chile of which over one quarter are listed on the ASX200. More than half of the Australian or Australian-affiliated companies with offices in Chile are related to the mining industry, although this has diversified in recent years. Australia is the sixth largest foreign investor in Chile, worth over US$5 billion. Significant Australian investors include BHP, Rio Tinto, Origin Energy, Orica (chemicals) and Pacific Hydro (power generation). One of the largest investments is a joint venture between BHP (57.5 per cent equity) and Rio Tinto (30 per cent) in the world’s largest copper mine, Escondida. The stock of Chilean direct investment in Australia is around US$750 million, making Australia Chile’s 12th largest destination for foreign direct investment.

CSIRO Chile was established in October 2013 as CSIRO’s first permanent international office. CSIRO Chile was originally established as a Centre of Excellence in Mining and Minerals Processing (co-funded by the Chilean Government) and has since expanded its research into additional sectors, including water basin management and aquaculture. In 2014, SMI-ICE Chile was established, a partnership between the University of Queensland's Sustainable Mining Institute, JK Tech and Chile’s University of Concepcion, which is funded by the Chilean Government and managed through CORFO, Chile's Economic Development Agency.

Mining and associated services remain significant players in the bilateral economic and trade relationship, however, growing income levels within Chile and a good economic outlook for the country means Australian agribusiness, financial services, energy and water, and education providers will also see significant opportunities in the future.

The 2014, Australia-Chile Economic Leadership Forum (ACELF) raised the profile of Australian business in Chile significantly, and has prepared the ground for further expansion of trade and investment links and institutional cooperation between both countries. The ACELF explored commercial opportunities and challenges for Australian and Chilean businesses in six key industry sectors - mining, energy, water management, education, transport and logistics, and financial services. It promoted the concept of Australia and Chile as platforms for trade and investment in Asia and Latin America respectively, in addition to underscoring the importance of the bilateral trade and investment relationship. The second ACELF in 2016 explored sectors of mutual interest, including mining and resources, infrastructure, education and our two countries’ positions as trade and business platforms in our respective regions.

Visit the Austrade website for information on doing business and opportunities in Chile.

High level visits

March 2018: The Hon Steven Ciobo MP, Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment, visited Chile for the signing of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP-11) in Santiago.

March 2017: The Hon Steven Ciobo MP, Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment, visited Chile.

December 2016: Former President HE Eduardo Frei and Mining Minister Aurora Williams visited Australia for the second Australia-Chile Economic Leadership Forum in Melbourne.

August 2016: The Governor General of Australia and Lady Cosgrove visited Chile. They met President Michelle Bachelet, Supreme Court President Enrique Dolmestch Urra, Senate President Richard Lagos Weber and Chamber of Deputies President Osvaldo Raul Andrade Lara. Trade and Investment Minister the Hon Steve Ciobo MP also visited Chile the same month.

November 2015: Chile ’s Vice Minister for Mining, Ignacio Moreno, along with a delegation, undertook a visit to Australia to present at the Victorian Government’s International Mining and Resources Conference, in addition to leading ‘Chile Market Insights’ seminars organised by the Australia-Latin America Business Council in both Melbourne and Sydney.

August 2015: Chile’s Minister for the Economy, Development and Tourism, Luis Felipe Céspedes visited Melbourne to meet with Australia’s Productivity Commission in addition to Victorian government officials, university representatives and businesspeople in Melbourne.

July 2015: The Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Hon Julie Bishop MP visited Chile and met President Michelle Bachelet, Foreign Minister Heraldo Muñoz, Economy Minister Luis Felipe Céspedes, Mining Minister Aurora Williams and signed an MOU on Education with the Vice Minister for Education, Valentina Quiroga. She also officially opened CSIRO Chile’s offices and delivered the keynote address at the Chile-Australia Chamber of Commerce Australian Business Networking event.

December 2014: The Minister for Trade and Investment, the Hon Andrew Robb AO MP, visited Chile and gave the keynote address to the inaugural Australia-Chile Economic Leadership Forum in Santiago. Mr Robb met President Bachelet, former Chilean Presidents Ricardo Lagos and Patricio Aylwin, as well as with the Chilean Ministers for Foreign Affairs, Economy, Mining and Energy.

October 2014: Australia’s Chief of Army, Lieutenant General David Morrison, visited Chile to meet with the Commander in Chief of Chile’s Army and further strengthen the relationship between Australia’s and Chile’s Armies.

September 2014: Chilean Mining Minister, Aurora Williams visited Australia to attend the International Mining and Resources Conference in Melbourne. She also met government officials in Brisbane and Canberra, and visited the Olympic Dam mine site in South Australia.

February 2014: Vice Chief of the Australian Defence Force, Air Marshal Mark Binskin AC, travelled to Chile to meet the Chiefs of the Chilean Army and Air Force, Senior Naval Officers and the Vice Minister of Defence. This visit was the most senior level Australian Defence Force visit to Latin America in recent memory and laid the foundation for practical and sustainable defence engagement, with a particular focus on the Pacific.

May 2013: Then Parliamentary Secretary for Trade, the Hon Kelvin Thomson, visited Chile on his way to the Pacific Alliance Summit in Cali, Colombia.

March 2013: Then Environment Minister of Chile, Maria Ignacia Benitez, visited Australia.

September 2012: President Sebastián Piñera visited Australia, accompanied by Foreign Minister Alfredo Moreno. Memorandums of Understanding on trilateral development cooperation with AusAID, mining with the CSIRO and biosecurity with the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry were signed during the visit.

2012: Then Chilean Minister for Labour and Social Welfare Evelyn Matthei and then Minister for Defence, Andrés Allamand, visited Australia

April 2012: Then Minister for Trade and Competitiveness, the Hon Craig Emerson, visited Chile.

May 2011: Then Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy, the Hon. Stephen Conroy, visited Chile.

2011, 2012, 2013: The Chilean Minister for Mines, Hernán de Solminihac visited Australia and signed MOUs with the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism and the South Australian Government.

Last updated April 2018.

Last Updated: 1 December 2017