Colombia country brief


Australia and Colombia enjoy expanding relations, based on trade, investment and cooperation on a range of international issues, including the environment, agricultural development, climate change, transnational crime and disarmament.

The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1976, when Australia's first Ambassador to Colombia, A.H. Loomes presented credentials. In the first visit to Colombia by an Australian Foreign Minister since 1995, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, The Hon Julie Bishop MP, opened the new Australian embassy in Bogotá on 27 June 2017, part of the largest expansion in Australia's diplomatic network in 40 years. Colombia has an Embassy in Canberra.

The Republic of Colombia, located in north-west South America, is slightly smaller than South Australia and Victoria combined. Colombia is dominated by the Andes mountain range in the north and west, and the Amazon and Orinoco river basins to the south and east. Colombia is experiences a range of climatic conditions depending on the land elevation and prevailing winds, including desert in the far north, savannah in the east, tropical rainforest in the south and temperate to cold climates depending on the altitude. Colombia also has a string of islands in the western Caribbean. Colombia is derived from Christopher Columbus' name. The capital of Colombia is Bogotá.

Colombia's population is approximately 48.7 million (2016 est). Roman Catholicism is the main religion with up to 90 per cent of the population identifying as Catholic. Spanish is the official language of Colombia.

Political overview

The Spanish expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda in 1499, which sailed along the northern coast of South America, marked the beginning of the conquest of Colombia. By 1538, the settlement of Santa Fe de Bogotá (now Bogotá) was established, and the area was governed as part of the vice-royalty of Peru. By 1718, Bogotá had become the capital of the new Spanish vice-royalty of New Granada, which also consisted of modern-day Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela.

In 1819, Simon Bolivar defeated Spanish forces in a battle at Boyacá and independence from Spain was declared. This led to the formation of the Republic of Gran Colombia, encompassing Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama. By 1830 Gran Colombia had collapsed due to the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador, and the Republic of New Granada emerged, comprising Colombia and Panama.

After several experiments with a federalist model of government, the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886 and Panama seceded in 1903. Colombia was the first constitutional government in South America.

Political tensions between the conservative right and progressive left came to a head in La Violencia (1948-1958), a period during which an estimated 250,000 people died. La Violencia was resolved by the formation of a National Front in which the two main political parties, the Liberal and Conservative Parties, agreed to rotate the presidency and share cabinet positions, which continued until 1974.

During the 1960s, several guerrilla groups emerged due to continued social, economic and political problems, including the FARC, the now demobilised M-19, the National Liberation Army (ELN), the Popular Liberation Army (EPL) and the indigenous-based group Quintin Lame. The FARC and the smaller ELN emerged as the major guerrilla groups. Their struggle has largely lost its ideological flavour and in the 1980s and 1990s the two groups became heavily involved in the lucrative narcotics and kidnapping industries.

Violent crime and kidnappings, while still high, reduced significantly under President Uribe, who won the 2002 elections. Under the "law on peace and justice", negotiations with the main right-wing paramilitary groups led to over 40,000 paramilitaries demobilising and giving up their arms, although some right wing groups consolidated their membership and continue to be involved in organised crime.

Under Uribe, the FARC suffered significant setbacks in its guerrilla campaign as its control of areas of the Colombian countryside diminished. A 2008 raid by elite Colombian troops was successful in releasing 15 more long-term hostages, including the high-profile French-Colombian national and former Senator, Ingrid Betancourt, and three American contractors. The raid was a significant blow to the FARC, as Betancourt and the US hostages were a powerful bargaining tool. In the same year, FARC leader Manual Marulanda died from a heart attack and a controversial incursion into Ecuador by Colombian forces resulted in the death of senior FARC figure Raul Reyes. However, the incursion led to Ecuador and Venezuela breaking off diplomatic ties with Colombia.

System of Government

Colombia has a democratically elected representative government with a strong executive. The President, who is the head of state and government, is elected for a four-year term and may stand for one consecutive re-lection. The legislature is a bicameral congress consisting of a 102-member Senate and a 166-member Chamber of Representatives, with all members directly elected for four-year terms.

In recent decades, Colombia has enjoyed constitutional and institutional stability based on the strict separation of powers between the executive, the legislature and the judiciary, and the relatively weak influence of the military in government affairs.

Recent developments

President Santos received the Nobel Peace Prize on 10 December 2016 for his efforts to bring peace to Colombia.

The award followed the 30 November 2016 Congressional endorsement of an agreement with the FARC guerillas. The United Nations is assisting in its implementation which will include, for example, setting the transitional justice system into motion, conducting the humanitarian demining of the territory, reintegrating former guerrilla members into civilian life, executing rural reforms, and replacing illicit crops with legal crops.

Colombia’s President-elect Ivan Duque won the second round of Colombia’s presidential election on 17 June 2018 with approximately 54 percent of votes. The candidate of the Democratic Center Party, Duque will be inaugurated as President in August 2018.

Foreign Policy

After many years focused on internal developments, Colombia is projecting itself as open for business and as a global partner for cooperation, including trade and investment, security, technology, education, and energy. The Santos administration has significantly expanded Colombia's international engagement, both bilaterally and multilaterally.

Colombia is a founding member of the outward-looking and trade-liberalising trading bloc, the Pacific Alliance (along with Chile, Mexico and Peru). Colombia served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2011-12, and achieved accession to the OECD in 2018. Colombia is an active member of the Forum for East Asia-Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC) and seeks membership of APEC.

Constructive relations within Latin America and the Caribbean are also a priority for Colombia. Following a dispute in 2008 which led to interruptions in diplomatic ties, relations with neighbours Venezuela and Ecuador have been stable. Colombia is an active member of the Association of Caribbean States, and the Organization of American States (OAS). A territorial and maritime dispute with Nicaragua, on which the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in 2012 that Colombia would cede maritime territory, is a source of tension with its northern neighbour. The United States is Colombia's most important trading partner. The US-Colombia free trade agreement came into effect in May 2012 and has boosted Colombia's most significant trading relationship with US goods imports from Colombia totaling USD14 billion in 2015 and US goods exports to Colombia in 2015 totaling USD17 billion. Colombia's top export categories to US in 2016 were: mineral fuels, previous metal and stone, coffee, tea and spice, and live trees and plants. US-Colombia engagement is being further developed following the achievements of "Plan Colombia" through the Colombia-US High Level Partnership Dialogue.

Colombia completed negotiations for an FTA with the Republic of Korea in June 2012. The FTA is Colombia's first in the Asia-Pacific region and is seen as a further bridge towards greater integration. In December 2012 Colombia commenced FTA negotiation with Japan. In May 2015 Colombia and China commenced an FTA feasibility study.

Bilateral Relations

The first records of Colombians in Australia dates back to four people included in the 1911 Census. Colombian migration to Australia remained negligible until the Australian Government's assisted passage migration program was extended to Latin American countries, including Colombia, in the late 1960s. The 2016 Census recorded 18,997 Colombian-born people in Australia.

Australia and Colombia have a history of working together in the international community since the end of the Second World War. Australia and Colombia both contributed combat forces to the 17-nation United Nations Command during the Korean War (1950-53) and both work together to pursue free and fair agricultural trade through joint membership of the Cairns Group. Australia and Colombia cooperate to advance climate change negotiations as members of the Cartagena Group. Both countries participate in the WTO Trade in Services Agreement negotiations.

In 2017, Australia launched FTA negotiations with Colombia as a member of the Pacific Alliance (Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru).

In 2001, the Australian Government established the Council on Australia-Latin America Relations (COALAR) which aims to enhance commercial, political and cultural relations between Australia and Latin America. Since its inception, COALAR has been active in promoting business, education, tourism and cultural links between Australia and Latin America. For updates on COALAR activities and information on the annual grants program, follow COALAR on Facebook.

People to people links

Colombia is second to Brazil as a source of international students to Australia from Latin America, with more than 14,112 Colombian students at Australian educational institutions in 2017. Australian education fairs in Colombia consistently attract thousands of interested students. Some universities in Australia now offer scholarships to Colombian students.

The University of Queensland's Sustainable Minerals Institute and the CSIRO are expanding their research links with Colombian institutions, particularly in the areas of mining and water management.

While the majority of Colombian students undertake ELICOS courses (English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students) in Australia, there is also a large demand for university and vocational education and training (VET) placements.

The Australian Government's Australia Awards–Endeavour Scholarships and Fellowships and Endeavour Mobility Grants support two-way engagement between Australia and the rest of the world. In 2018, Colombian scholars were offered five Endeavour Scholarships and Fellowships, while 10 Australian students will have a study experience in Colombia under the Endeavour Mobility Grants program. Colombian scholars have been awarded a total of 25 Endeavour Scholarships and Fellowships from 2008 to 2018.

Development assistance

Since 2010, there have been 38 Australia Award Fellowships granted to Colombia.

From 2010 to 2014, Australia provided $100 million in official development assistance to Latin America, including 250 Australia Awards scholarships. Colombia received 23 Australia Awards Scholarships. The regional program has now closed, though some activities that have already been funded will continue until 2017. In support of sustainable economic development in Colombia, Australia provided over $1.2 million from a $10 million Multilateral Investment Fund with the Inter-American Development Bank. Australian funds are helping to increase the availability of savings products for low income women; and providing training on financial services, income generation, and other cross-cutting issues including child protection, environment and human rights.

Economic overview

For latest economic data refer to Colombia Fact Sheet [PDF 30 KB]

Economic and trade policy directions

Colombia is Latin America's oldest and most stable democracy and boasts strong macroeconomic foundations, has never defaulted on a foreign debt or had hyperinflation in its history which has created an environment factorable to conducting business. The local banks are very liquid and the country has a very strong and independent Central Bank. All these conditions make it a prime target for Australia's expanding engagement with Latin America.

The Santos administration pursues outward-looking, market-oriented trade and economic policies aimed at attracting foreign direct investment, maintaining macro-economic growth and stability, and improving the business environment.

Colombia has 13 free trade agreements including with the United States, Canada, the European Union and South Korea, is a founding member of the Pacific Alliance (with Peru, Chile and Mexico) and is progressing its ascension to the OECD. Through trade agreements, Colombia has access to 47 countries and more than 1.5 billion consumers.

Colombia has a population of 48.7 million (2016) and has five cities with populations over two million – Bogotá (7.6 million), Medellin (2.4 million), Cali (2.3 million), and the Barranquilla/Cartagena region (2-3 million). Its large population and geographical position, linking the Pacific and Caribbean, provides Colombia with significant opportunities for future economic growth.

The cattle segment is the largest in Colombia's agricultural sector, accounting for around 20 per cent of agricultural production and 3 per cent of agriculture GDP. Of the country's 500,000 cattle ranchers, 82 per cent own less than 50 animals and half of them own less than 10.

Colombia is the second largest coffee producer in the world. Approximately 20 per cent of all cultivated land in Colombia is dedicated to growing mild Arabica beans, mostly for export. According to the Unit of Rural Agricultural Planning, 92 per cent of the country's territory is rural, and only 35 per cent of the nation's agricultural land is put to efficient use.

In October 2015, the government launched the program "Colombia Siembra" which involves an investment of USD$500 million from 2016-2018 and aims to boost agricultural growth from 2.3 per cent in 2014 to 6.2 per cent in 2018.

Economic outlook

Colombia is the third largest economy in South America. GDP grew 2.3 per cent in 2017, up from 2.0 per cent in 2016 while inflation fell from 7.5 per cent in 2016 to 4.5 per cent in 2017. Unemployment has stayed around nine per cent for the last six years. The country's middle class has been increasing consistently, representing approximately 30 per cent of the Colombian population in 2014, and is expected to grow to 37 per cent of the population by 2020 and to 46 per cent by 2025.

Economic and trade relationship

While Australia and Colombia enjoy growing commercial relations in mining and energy over the long term, two-way trade in these sectors has been subject to recent short term fluctuations. Education-related services predominate, with the trade balance in Australia's favour. The stock of Australian investment in Colombia is valued at more than $3 billion, predominately in the mining sector. Since 2010, Colombia has invested in Australia around $3-4 million per year.

In 2017, Australia launched FTA negotiations with Colombia as a member of the Pacific Alliance (Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru). In 2016-17 two-way trade with Colombia was $682 million, with services exports of $456 million, primarily education-related travel. Colombia has emerged as a country of investment and trade interest to Australian companies, presenting opportunities in mining and education, as well as potentially in agribusiness and infrastructure.

Australian businesses already have a major presence in Colombia with 43 companies operating in the country (including nine ASX200 companies), particularly in the mining sector. BHP and South 32 are significant foreign investor with operations in the Cerrejon Norte coal mine complex and Cerro Mataso nickel mine respectively. Other key Australian companies active in Colombia include Orica, QBE Insurance, Qantas, Nufarm, Sedgman Limited and Redflex Traffic Systems.

Trade and Investment

Colombia is developing frameworks to encourage more foreign investment and trade, with a view to stable and sustainable economic growth. In this context, Australian expertise, and firms, are increasing their focus on supporting the policy development framework in these countries across a number of sectors. A number of areas, principally in the mining, energy and agriculture sectors and allied services industries, provide opportunities for Australian investment in Colombia. Foreign direct investment in Colombia has grown following improvements in the security situation and business environment.


Colombia has the largest coal reserves in Latin America and the Colombian Government is encouraging the development of coal-related infrastructure. Investment in the mining sector is steadily growing and focused on increasing efficiency and productivity and reducing costs in environmental management, safety and community engagement consulting. In 2015, Colombia and Australia signed an MOU in mining. This has strengthened the ties between the Colombian and Australian mining sectors, with companies currently involved in five mining projects and investment in the sector. The most active companies currently operating and investing in Colombia include BHP Billiton, South32, and Orica, as well as other experts in diverse areas of Australian Mining Equipment, Technology and Services (METS). Opportunities for Australian business range from infrastructure development, concessions, mine system operation, coal washing and remote mine site catering. Colombia also has significant reserves of gold, silver, platinum and iron ore. Ms Silvana Habib-Daza, President of the National Mining Agency of Colombia presented at Latin America Down Under in 2016.


There is significant Colombian interest in Australian agribusiness expertise. The agribusiness sector provides potential for technical cooperation and technology transfer, especially in the sugar cane, dairy, livestock and tropical fruit industries. Demand for bovine genetics offer great potential for Australian breeders of tropical cattle such as Brahman, allowing the importation of Australian bovine embryos have been in place since 2008.

Other commercial opportunities

Other prospects include rail and port infrastructure, and information technology. Colombia has also shown interest in defence-related technology through contact with a range of Australian companies. Colombia's tourist industry on the Atlantic Coast is experiencing growth and opportunities may exist for Australian manufactures of ferries, catamarans and leisure craft. There is also growing interest in Australian sports training and development and wines, with several brands now available in Colombian supermarkets and restaurants.

Information on doing business and opportunities in Colombia.

High level visits

June 2017: Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment Steven Ciobo travelled to Cali, Colombia to attend the Pacific Alliance Summit.

June 2017:  Minister for Foreign Affairs Julie Bishop travelled on an official visit to Colombia and opened the new Australian embassy in Bogotá.

August 2016: Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment Steven Ciobo travelled on an official visit to Colombia.

March 2015: First Assistant Secretary of the Americas Division, Brendon Hammer travelled to Colombia to participate in the International Institute for Strategic Studies Cartagena Dialogue.

February 2015: Australia's Minister for the Environment, Greg Hunt MP visited Bogotá to meet with senior level officials including Colombia's Minister for the Environment and Sustainable Development, Mr Gabriel Vallejo López and Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ms Patti Londoño.

November 2013: Colombian Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, Patti Londoño, visited Australia to conduct senior level talks.

May 2013: Then Parliamentary Secretary for Trade, the Hon. Kelvin Thomson represented Australia at the VII Pacific Alliance Summit in Cali, Colombia.

April 2012: Then Minister for Trade and Competitiveness, the Hon. Craig Emerson, led an Australian business delegation to Colombia, where he met the Colombian ministers responsible for trade, foreign affairs, mining and energy.

June 2012: Then Prime Minister, the Hon. Julia Gillard, met President Santos in Brazil during the Rio+20 summit.

March 2010: Colombia's then Minister for Foreign Affairs, Jaime Bermudez, visited Australia.

March 2009: Colombia's then Minister of Trade, Industry and Tourism, Mr Luis Guillermo Plata, visited Australia in, accompanied by a business delegation. The visit led to the conclusion of a Memorandum of Understanding to strengthen bilateral trade and investment, which trade ministers signed in Geneva on 29 November 2009.

Last Updated: April 2018

Last Updated: 5 December 2017